Validity And Reliability In Qualitative Research Pdf

validity and reliability in qualitative research pdf

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In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research can impact and reshape the discipline of primary care, spiraling out from clinic-based health screening to community-based disease monitoring, evaluation of out-of-hours triage services to provincial psychiatric care pathways model and finally, national legislation of core measures for children's healthcare insurance.

Show all documents Investigation of validity and reliability works in postgraduate mathematics theses that adopt qualitative research in Turkey: Functions of data collection tool Abstract. In this research , master and doctorate thesis which adopts qualitative method in mathematics education studies in Turkey are thoroughly inspected in terms of their validity and reliability , thus the research has a case study as a research model.

Qualitative Validity

Show all documents Investigation of validity and reliability works in postgraduate mathematics theses that adopt qualitative research in Turkey: Functions of data collection tool Abstract. In this research , master and doctorate thesis which adopts qualitative method in mathematics education studies in Turkey are thoroughly inspected in terms of their validity and reliability , thus the research has a case study as a research model.

From Thesis Web site by Council of Higher Education, master thesis which are published and contains both primary and secondary mathematical studies and 27 doctorate thesis are analysed by using document analysis technique and data is resolved by means of content analysis.

It was seen in almost more than half of these theses in which reliability and validity are done, that in addition to the credibility, transmissibility, consistency and confirmability strategies that is used for qualitative paradigm, Statistical calculations are also used in regards of quantitative paradigm.

Also, in most of the scale development and adaptation works, language validity technique was not used and in almost half of them, it was observed that strategies such as test works were not employed. In this case, it shows that Reliability and Credibility works remains unfulfilled and awareness of analysis strategies that are caused by scale differences remains low.

Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged.

Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself.

Assuring reliability in qualitative studies: a health informatics persective In order for producing credible and consistent results, validity should be maximised, and eventually this may lead to generalizability. This has a great impact on how various components of a study are conceived and documented. Therefore, the quality of a research is related to generalizability of the results and thereby to the testing and increasing the validity or trustworthiness of the research.

Validity in qualitative studies is employed by using various approaches, normally triangulation type approaches. Mathison stated that Triangulation has assumed an important methodological issue in naturalistic and qualitative approaches to assess and perhaps eliminate control bias and establishing valid propositions because traditional scientific techniques are incompatible with this alternate epistemology p.

Thus it is common to use a range of methodological approaches, mixing paradigms or possibly mixing methods within one paradigm in order to assure confirmation and generalization of a research. Healy and Perry see validity and reliability within the realism paradigm which relies on multiple perceptions about a single reality. These views and notions ultimately indicate that several data sources and their interpretations with those multiple perceptions in the realism paradigm can be realised using triangulation.

First, the validity of the research instrument was examined to assess the extent to which the indicators of a particular construct are actually measuring the construct which they are designed to measure.

The results of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that all the items apart from one item of the customer satisfaction scale loaded higher than the recommended 0. The one item of customer satisfaction scale that did not load higher the recommended cut-off limit was dropped from the final measurement scale.

The factor loadings, along with the corresponding t values, for the all the items for constructs examined in the present research except one are well above the cut-off limit 0. Although factor loadings presented sufficient evidence as a measure of the convergent validity , average variance extracted Fornell and Larcker, was also employed to ascertain the extent to which the variance of each construct is explained by the items that are imposed on that construct.

Average variance extracted AVE represents the amount of variance captured by the indicators of the latent construct on which they are imposed.

The results revealed that the average variance extracted for all the constructs is above 0. Gait Real-Time Analysis Interactive Lab: Reliability and Validity of Knee Angles and Moments in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis Good reliability was observed for knee flexion and extension angles, although it should be noted that the confidence intervals around the ICCs for those measures were quite wide, and we therefore cannot rule out poor reliability.

For example, the knee flexion and extension angles had CIs with lower ends of 0. Similarly, the test-retest reliability of knee flexion and extension moments could be classified as good- to-excellent, but had CIs with lower ends of 0. It is unclear why these sagittal plane data were less reliable than the frontal plane data. Anna Maria Carlsson et al. In clinical practice the percentage of pain relief, assessed by Visual Analog Scale, is often considered as a measure of efficacy of treatment.

However as illustrated in the present study the validity of Visual Analog Scale estimates performed by patients with chronic pain may be unsatisfactory. Two type of Visual Analog Scale, an absolute and a comparative scale.

Where comparative with respective factor influencing the reliability and validity of pain estimate. Reliability and validity of two fitness tracker devices in the laboratory and home environment for older community-dwelling people However, while there has been growth in testing the val- idity and reliability of fitness trackers with older people over the past few years [11] the evidence is still limited, particularly compared to other younger populations [11].

It is known that many older people reduce their activity levels com- pared to younger healthier populations. They may also use a walking aid and are less likely to lift their feet when turning, all of which may affect the data recordings of the fitness trackers. If fitness trackers are to be used in studies to establish whether they can promote an increase in physical activity in older people, it is necessary to know whether these devices are reliable and valid in this popula- tion.

It will also be of benefit to older adults to know whether these commercially available devices are able to provide accurate activity data. They added that, it includes precise procedures, by which a researcher creates a relationship between the research objectives and the questions.

According to Ponterotto , positivist philosophy is based upon the structured methodology to enable generalization and quantifiable observations and evaluate the result with the help of statistical methods.

This research follows the positivist philosophy because the researcher plays the role of objective observer and analyst by evaluating the collected data and produces an appropriate result in order to achieve research aims and objectives.

We collect data on group-work from different groups at one point in time. We also collect data from the same group at different points in time sequence. We have a survey of teachers and students in tertiary schools from different placeslots of universities in an area or around the country, or in New Zealand or China. In the same classroom, we will use more than one independent observer to get more valid and reliable data on group-work.

Researchers might see things from different angles and at different levels. The whole perspectives are far more complex than any single one. Their own perspectives and observational styles will be reflected in the subsequent data, creating divergence in the data collections. A combination of two different accounts together might result in a better understanding of the whole than the use of either one separately, even if the accounts are inconsistent.

Together, the two very different accounts--reflecting low reliability --could produce even a higher validity. If data divergence is minimal, we will get more validity. If the data are significantly different, we should carry out further. The remaining item scores 2 for clearly describing principal confounders in each group of subjects, 1 for partially describing and 0 when not described. The maximum score totals 32 as the final item is a five point scale for rating the power to detect a clinically important effect.

The results showed that the reliability of measuring the movements was high and for the elbow joint supination was the highest [3]. Wellmon RH et al. The basic aim of the study was to validate the two mobile applications. The angles were measured in acute, right and obtuse angle. It uses samples and probability calculations.

Besides, this study is limited to the variables used in the research model without considering the other variables that may affect the revisit intention. Convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed by multitrait scaling analysis, which revealed three 3.

Higher miss- ing value rate occurred in sexuality-related items. Standardization of the Computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children BENCI in an urban setting, in Kenya: a study protocol A pretest of the BENCI will be carried out in order to identify elements that may not be well understood by respondents and problems that may be encountered dur- ing the main study.

The piloting will be carried out among randomly selected 10 children from a community-based HIV programme. The randomization will be carried out among 8- to year-old who are living with HIV. They will be randomly selected as they come into the clinic for their usual appointments and requested to enroll for the pilot study. The piloting will aid in adapting BENCI in terms of modifying item formats that may not be recog- nized by respondents, eliminating translation bias among other modifications.

In order to improve content validity , inter-rater reliability analysis will be carried out where two raters will review the results of the pretest. One rater will administer the tool amongst the pilot sample, while the other rater will review how the tool is administered and the respondent responds. This work will be qualita- tive in nature trying to identify and refine the items and their relevance within BENCI.

Although the original developers had maintained four factors from the items of their respective version, our exploratory factor analysis formed three domains from the Turkish version of the M-ISI. As highlighted in the results, our proposed three-factor construct showed high correlations with sub- domains and lower correlations with the other domains for all of the ten items, which indicates good construct validity.

A comparison of Value at Risk methods in portfolios with linear and non linear financial instruments Despite being the most widespread methodology to measure risk, there is relevant research that does not recommend VaR. Beder argues that VaR is highly seductive but dangerous as a method to estimate risk.

After applying 8 methods for 3 portfolios, this work finds significant inaccuracies in the VaR estimations. Also, it points out that VaR is heavily dependent on parameters, data and assumptions and concludes that VaR is not a sufficient tool to control risk. Other papers show that it is totally possible to find different outputs from the same portfolio and underlying asset considering the same approach.

Artzner et al also criticise VaR. They mention examples where a portfolio is divided into 2 sub-portfolios and the calculation of their VaR demonstrates that the sum of the VaR of the 2 sub-portfolios is lower that the VaR of the portfolio before being divided.

It should account for the correlation of the instruments that compose the portfolio. This would be an issue for VaR limits in individual books. Also Artzner et al say that VaR fails in neglecting the size of the loss that exceeds it. Preferable reliability was indicated by coefficient greater than 0. The test-retest reliability of the scales and single items was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient.

Scale discriminant validity clinical validity was tested by known group comparisons to assess whether the questionnaire scores were able to discriminate between subgroups of patients differing in clinical status by using the Student t-test. Higher scores in KPS signify better performance status. Convergent validity was tested first by multi-trait analyses, and we then conducted another convergent valid- ity test by correlation analyses with FACT-Hep. The Problem of Teaching of English Pronominal Pronouns in Genderless Society as Applied Linguistic Domain Language is considered to be a tool of communication and a means of knowledge of the world around us.

Through language understanding and its use, people shape their realization of a society, community, knowledge, norms and values of a community people live in. Education is perhaps the best established domain of applied linguistics.

Series of research papers on language and gender has certainly influenced educational debates, decision-making policies and pedagogic practices during the last few decades. With respect to amending the observed gender inequalities in educational world during the s, there was a mass of publications Hardman, ; Tannen, like guidelines, teaching materials, policy statements designed to publish.

One of the commonly spread issues there might be that of masculinity and femininity which are frequently constructed as discrete and oppositional frameworks of one and the same category.

There seems to have been too easy an assumption that boys behave in one way, and girls in another; and that boys and girls alike behave in a consistent manner. Discussions of the question in point - sexist language or sexist biases in educational texts broadly viewed sexism as inherent property of texts.

In a similar way, sexist language has been demonstrated in a simplistic and deterministic way as developing language users either as feminine or masculine.

Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research

What are the Criteria for Inferring Causality? How do we assess reliability and validity? Reliability in qualitative research refers to the stability of responses to multiple coders of data sets. It can be enhanced by detailed field notes by using recording devices and by transcribing the digital files. However, validity in qualitative research might have different terms than in quantitative research. Trustworthiness is achieved by credibility, authenticity, transferability, dependability, and confirmability in qualitative research. To operationalize these terms, long engagement in the field and the triangulation of data sources, methods, and investigators to establish credibility.

Published on July 3, by Fiona Middleton. Revised on June 26, Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Table of contents Understanding reliability vs validity How are reliability and validity assessed? How to ensure validity and reliability in your research Where to write about reliability and validity in a thesis.

Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research

In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research can impact and reshape the discipline of primary care, spiraling out from clinic-based health screening to community-based disease monitoring, evaluation of out-of-hours triage services to provincial psychiatric care pathways model and finally, national legislation of core measures for children's healthcare insurance. Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies. The essence of qualitative research is to make sense of and recognize patterns among words in order to build up a meaningful picture without compromising its richness and dimensionality.

Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research. Breakwell, ; Cohen et al. What seems more relevant when discussing qualitative studies is their validity , which very often is being addressed with regard to three common threats to validity in qualitative studies, namely researcher bias , reactivity and respondent bias Lincoln and Guba,

How is reliability and validity realized in qualitative research?

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Noble and J. Noble , J. Evaluating the quality of research is essential if findings are to be utilised in practice and incorporated into care delivery. View on Publisher.

Reliability is a concept that refers to producing consistent results time after time. If you commission a qualitative research or evaluation project, how can you be sure it is reliable? If a qualitative research project is reliable, it will help you understand a situation clearly that would otherwise be confusing. Qualitative research is about discussion, about delving into topics in depth, getting beneath the surface. However, clients would not commission qualitative studies if there was no sense that the results would be reliable, that they could make confident decisions based on the results. So, how can qualitative research be conducted with reliability?


chezchevaux.org Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Nahid Golafshani.


Nature of Qualitative Research versus Quantitative Research

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Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research

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2 COMMENTS

Roger P.

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Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. This is particularly vital in qualitative work, where the researcher's subjectivity can so readily cloud the interpretation of the data, and where research findings are often questioned or viewed with scepticism by the scientific community.

Dopogigood

REPLY

Depending on their philosophical perspectives , some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences.

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