File Name: tyranny and political culture in ancient greece .zip
- Democracy, Political Theory, and Political History
- Tyranny and political culture in ancient Greece
- Political and Cultural Aspects of Greek Exoticism
Michael Gagarin, James F.
Democracy, Political Theory, and Political History
The classics contain many references to tyranny and its causes, effects, methods, practitioners, alternatives. Edited by Matthew A. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their positions by resorting to oppressive means. The philosophers Plato and Aristotle defined a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both his own people and others.
The term is usually applied to vicious autocrats who rule their subjects by brutal methods. Oppression, injustice and cruelty do not have standardized measurements or thresholds. The Greeks defined both usurpers and those inheriting rule from usurpers as tyrants. Old words are defined by their historical usage. Biblical quotations do not use the word tyrant, but express opinions very similar to those of the Greek philosophers, citing the wickedness, cruelty and injustice of rulers.
The Greek philosophers stressed the quality of rule rather than legitimacy or absolutism. Both say that monarchy, or rule by a single man, is royal when it is for the welfare of the ruled and tyrannical when it serves only the interest of the ruler. Both make lawlessness — either a violation of existing laws or government by personal fiat without settled laws — a mark of tyranny.
Bad results are relative. Comparative criteria may include checklists or body counts. Accounting for deaths in war is problematic — war can build empires or defend the populace — it also keeps winning tyrants in power. He united seven separate kingdoms into a single nation. He built the Great Wall and was buried with the terra-cotta soldiers. The Chinese have mixed feelings about him. A modern tyrant might be objectively defined by proven violation of international criminal law such as crimes against humanity.
The state is the product of civilization. Agriculture allowed greater concentrations of people which lead to more conflict. Political and military leaders arose to manage conflicts. All leaders were once tyrants in their own ways. History has labeled a set of ancient Greek and Sicilian leaders as tyrants.
History remembers the rulers, their rises, methods, and ends and the environment in which they ruled. Ancient political commentators Plato and Aristotle lived late in the period of many tyrants. They had monarchies and democracies for comparison. The historical definition is best understood from their historical perspective. In ancient Greece, tyrants were influential opportunists that came to power by securing the support of different factions of a deme.
The word tyrannos , possibly pre-Greek, Pelasgian or eastern in origin,  then carried no ethical censure; it simply referred to anyone, good or bad, who obtained executive power in a polis by unconventional means.
Support for the tyrants came from the growing middle class and from the peasants who had no land or were in debt to the wealthy landowners. It is true that they had no legal right to rule, but the people preferred them over kings or the aristocracy. The Greek tyrants stayed in power by using mercenary soldiers from outside of their respective city-state.
An aesymnetes plural aesymnetai had similar scope of power to the tyrant, such as Pittacus of Mytilene c. Magistrates in some city-states were also called aesymnetai. Popular coups generally installed tyrants, who often became or remained popular rulers, at least in the early part of their reigns.
For instance, the popular imagination remembered Peisistratus for an episode — related by pseudonymous Aristotle, but possibly fictional — in which he exempted a farmer from taxation because of the particular barrenness of his plot. One of the earliest known uses of the word tyrant in Greek was by the poet Archilochus, who lived three centuries before Plato, in reference to king Gyges of Lydia.
The heyday of the Archaic period tyrants came in the early 6th century BC, when Cleisthenes ruled Sicyon in the Peloponnesus and Polycrates ruled Samos. During this time, revolts overthrew many governments  in the Aegean world. Chilon, the ambitious and capable ephor of Sparta, built a strong alliance amongst neighbouring states by making common cause with these groups seeking to oppose unpopular tyrannical rule.
By intervening against the tyrants of Sicyon, Corinth and Athens, Sparta thus came to assume Hellenic leadership prior to the Persian invasions.
Simultaneously Persia first started making inroads into Greece, and many tyrants sought Persian help against popular forces seeking to remove them. Corinth hosted one of the earliest of Greek tyrants.
Conditions were right for Cypselus to overthrow the aristocratic power of the dominant but unpopular clan of Bacchiadae. Clan members were killed, executed, driven out or exiled in BC. Corinth prospered economically under his rule, and Cypselus managed to rule without a bodyguard. When he then bequeathed his position to his son, Periander, the tyranny proved less secure, and Periander required a retinue of mercenary soldiers personally loyal to him.
Nevertheless, under Cypselus and Periander, Corinth extended and tightened her control over her colonial enterprises, and exports of Corinthian pottery flourished. However, tyrants seldom succeeded in establishing an untroubled line of succession. Periander threw his pregnant wife downstairs killing her , burnt his concubines alive, exiled his son, warred with his father-in-law and attempted to castrate sons of his perceived enemies.
Afterward, Corinth was ruled by a lackluster oligarchy, and was eventually eclipsed by the rising fortunes of Athens and Sparta. Athens hosted its tyrants late in the Archaic period. Supported by the prosperity of the peasantry and landowning interests of the plain, which was prospering from the rise of olive oil exports, as well as his clients from Marathon, he managed to achieve authoritarian power. Through an ambitious program of public works, which included fostering the state cult of Athena; encouraging the creation of festivals; supporting the Panathenaic Games in which prizes were jars of olive oil; and supporting the Dionysia ultimately leading to the development of Athenian drama , Peisistratus managed to maintain his personal popularity.
Contempt for tyranny characterised this cult movement. Despite financial help from Persia, in the Peisistratids were expelled by a combination of intrigue, exile and Spartan arms. The anti-tyrannical attitude became especially prevalent in Athens after BC, when Cleisthenes reformed the political system so that it resembled demokratia.
The Thirty Tyrants whom the Spartans imposed on a defeated Attica in BC would not be classified as tyrants in the usual sense and were in effect an oligarchy. The best known Sicilian tyrants appeared long after the Archaic period. Under the Macedonian hegemony in the 4th and 3rd century BC a new generation of tyrants rose in Greece, especially under the rule of king Antigonus II Gonatas, who installed his puppets in many cities of the Peloponnese.
Against these rulers, in BC the democratic cities started to join forces in the Achaean League which was able to expand its influence even into Corinthia, Megaris, Argolis and Arcadia. From BC under the leadership of Aratus of Sicyon, the Achaeans liberated many cities, in several cases by convincing the tyrants to step down, and when Aratus died in BC, Hellas had been free of tyrants for more than 15 years.
The last tyrant on the Greek mainland, Nabis of Sparta, was assassinated in BC and after his death the Peloponnese was united as a confederation of stable democracies in the Achaean League.
For instance, regarding Julius Caesar and his assassins, Suetonius wrote:. Therefore the plots which had previously been formed separately, often by groups of two or three, were united in a general conspiracy, since even the populace no longer were pleased with present conditions, but both secretly and openly rebelled at his tyranny and cried out for defenders of their liberty. Citizens of the empire were circumspect in identifying tyrants.
Philosophers have been more expressive than historians. He also identified some later tyrants. The classics contain many references to tyranny and its causes, effects, methods, practitioners, alternatives… They consider tyranny from historical, religious, ethical, political and fictional perspectives.
These included Alexander the Great and Attila the Hun who shared the region with highway robbers. He also identifies liberty with republican regimes.
He never uses the word in The Prince. He also does not share in the traditional view of tyranny, and in his Discourses he sometimes explicitly acts as an advisor to tyrants. Ancient Greeks, as well as the Roman Republicans, became generally quite wary of many people seeking to implement a popular coup.
Gibbons called emperors tyrants and their rule tyranny. His definitions in the chapter were related to the absolutism of power alone — not oppression, injustice or cruelty. He ignored the appearance of shared rule.
In the Enlightenment, thinkers applied the word tyranny to the system of governance that had developed around aristocracy and monarchy.
The path of a tyrant can appear easy and pleasant for all but the aristocracy. A 20th-century historian said:. Hence the road to power in Greece commercial cities was simple: to attack the aristocracy, defend the poor, and come to an understanding with the middle classes. Arrived at power, the dictator abolished debts, or confiscated large estates, taxed the rich to finance public works, or otherwise redistributed the overconcentrated wealth; and while attaching the masses to himself through such measures, he secured the support of the business community by promoting trade with state coinage and commercial treaties, and by raising the social prestige of the bourgeoisie.
Forced to depend upon popularity instead of hereditary power, the dictatorships for the most part kept out of war, supported religion, maintained order, promoted morality, favored the higher status of women, encouraged the arts, and lavished revenues upon the beautification of their cities.
And they did all these things, in many cases, while preserving the forms of popular government, so that even under despotism the people learned the ways of liberty. When the dictatorship [of the tyrant] had served to destroy the aristocracy the people destroyed the dictatorship; and only a few changes were needed to make democracy of freemen a reality as well as a form.
Ancient Greek philosophers who were aristocrats were far more critical in reporting the methods of tyrants. Such tyrants may act as renters, rather than owners, of the state. The political methods of obtaining power were occasionally supplemented by theater or force. Peisistratus of Athens blamed self-inflicted wounds on enemies to justify a bodyguard which he used to seize power.
He later appeared with a woman dressed as a goddess to suggest divine sanction of his rule. They include hiring bodyguards, stirring up wars to smother dissent, purges, assassinations, and unwarranted searches and seizures.
Aristotle suggested an alternative means of retaining power — ruling justly. The methods of tyrants to retain power include placating world opinion by staging rigged elections  , using or threatening to use violence,  and seeking popular support by appeals to patriotism and claims that conditions have improved.
Originally published by Wikipedia , Harmodius and Aristogeiton murdering Hipparchus, the brother of Hippias, tyrant of Athens. A sculptural pairing of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who became known as the tyrannicides after they killed Hipparchus and were the preeminent symbol of Athenian democracy. Vercingetorix throws down his arms at the feet of Julius Caesar, painting by Lionel Royer. Board and the End of Racial School Segregation.
Tyranny and political culture in ancient Greece
The classics contain many references to tyranny and its causes, effects, methods, practitioners, alternatives. Edited by Matthew A. Often portrayed as cruel, tyrants may defend their positions by resorting to oppressive means. The philosophers Plato and Aristotle defined a tyrant as a person who rules without law, using extreme and cruel methods against both his own people and others. The term is usually applied to vicious autocrats who rule their subjects by brutal methods. Oppression, injustice and cruelty do not have standardized measurements or thresholds.
Ober, W. Scheidel, B. Shaw, and D. Raaflaub, J. Ober, and R.
Tyranny and Political Culture in Ancient Greece. James F. Read Online · Download PDF. Save This book began as a treatment of the image of the tyrant in Greek authors of the fifth century B.C. and in democratic Athens. That image was.
Political and Cultural Aspects of Greek Exoticism
This article explores the uses of Greek literature, philosophy, and politics in contemporary political theory. The article suggests that the question of how to recuperate the new political theoretical possibilities posed by a polyvocal or deconstructed Plato remains an underappreciated but critical question for political and democratic theory today. Keywords: political theory , Greek literature , democracy , history of political thought , postwar thought , polis , Plato. Whatever their differences in interest and emphasis, political theorists generally endorse the view that Plato, Aristotle, Thucydides, and the dramatic poets are part of a shifting canon of political thought and that their works have helped constitute our political vocabulary.
Search this site. A Fraga PDF. Abdulaziz Sachedina PDF. Abide PDF. Air Pollution PDF.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Mcglew Published History.
Dimitris P. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Как во сне она направилась к главному выходу из шифровалки. Голос Грега Хейла эхом отдавался в ее сознании: Сьюзан, Стратмор меня убьет, коммандер влюблен в. Она подошла к огромному круглому порталу и начала отчаянно нажимать кнопки. Дверь не сдвинулась с места. Она пробовала снова и снова, но массивная плита никак не реагировала. Сьюзан тихо вскрикнула: по-видимому, отключение электричества стерло электронный код.
Стратмор виновато улыбнулся. - Сегодня утром Дэвид рассказал мне о ваших планах. Он сказал, что ты будешь очень расстроена, если поездку придется отложить. Сьюзан растерялась. - Вы говорили с Дэвидом сегодня утром. - Разумеется.
- Вам нужно проверить, как это выглядит. Бринкерхофф окинул взглядом ее фигуру. - Отсюда выглядит просто отлично. - Да ну тебя, Чед, - засмеялась. - Я гожусь тебе в матери.
Вирусы были самой большой неприятностью, с которой сталкивались в своей работе программисты. Поскольку компьютеры должны были выполнять операции в абсолютно точном порядке, самая мелкая ошибка могла иметь колоссальные последствия. Простая синтаксическая ошибка - если бы, например, программист по ошибке ввел вместо точки запятую - могла обрушить всю систему.