File Name: principles of crystal nucleation and growth .zip
E-mail: nima mit. This chapter discusses the fundamental aspects of nucleation and particle formation in the continuous crystallization context, with a main focus on nucleation and crystal growth. The classic crystallization phenomena, fundamental, thermodynamic or kinetic driven, will not be covered here.
- Crystal growth
- Multistep nucleation and growth mechanisms of organic crystals from amorphous solid states
- Nucleation, Growth, and Aggregation of Mineral Phases: Mechanisms and Kinetic Controls
Nucleation is the first step in the formation of either a new thermodynamic phase or a new structure via self-assembly or self-organization.
Kinetics of Water-Rock Interaction pp Cite as. The formation of any phase, whether natural or synthetic Fig.
The first step in the process of creating a new solid phase from a supersaturated solution either aqueous or solid is called nucleation. A particle formed by the event of nucleation usually has a poorly ordered and often highly hydrated structure. This particle is metastable with respect to ordering into a well-defined phase, which can accompany growth of the particle. This process of initiation of a new phase is defined as a first order transition and can follow various pathways involving a host of mechanisms.
One of these pathways occurs when individual nuclei coalesce into larger clusters, a process defined as aggregation, which itself can follow a series of different pathways.
These processes depend on a plethora of chemical and physical parameters that control and strongly affect the formation of new nuclei, the growth of a new crystal, or the aggregation behavior of clusters, and it is these issues that will be the focus of this chapter. We will discuss the mechanisms and rates of each process as well as the methods of quantification or modeling from the point of view of existing theoretical understanding. Each step will be illustrated with natural examples or laboratory experimental quantifications.
Complementary to the information in this chapter, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms and processes that govern dissolution of a phase are discussed in detail in Chap.
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Multistep nucleation and growth mechanisms of organic crystals from amorphous solid states
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Yoreo and P. Yoreo , P. In the most general sense, biomineralization is a process by which organisms produce materials solutions for their own functional requirements. Because so many biomineral products are derived from an initial solution phase and are either completely crystalline or include crystalline components, an understanding of the physical principles of crystallization from solutions is an important tool for students of biomineralization.
Bruce D. The observation that basic igneous rocks most commonly are holocrystalline under a wide spectrum of cooling regimes implies that cooling and crystallization can be uncoupled and considered separately. This is tantamount to realizing that the Avrami number is large in most igneous systems. Crystallization automatically adjusts through nucleation and growth to the cooling regime, and all aspects of the ensuing crystal population reflect the relative roles of nucleation and growth, which reflect the cooling regime. The characteristic scales of crystal size, crystal number and crystallization time are intimately tied to the characteristic rates of nucleation and growth, but it is the crystal size distributions CSDs that provide fundamental insight on the time variations of nucleation and growth and also on the dynamics of magmatic systems.
A crystal is a solid material whose constituent atoms , molecules , or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Crystal growth is a major stage of a crystallization process , and consists in the addition of new atoms, ions, or polymer strings into the characteristic arrangement of the crystalline lattice. The action of crystal growth yields a crystalline solid whose atoms or molecules are close packed, with fixed positions in space relative to each other. The crystalline state of matter is characterized by a distinct structural rigidity and very high resistance to deformation i. Most crystalline solids have high values both of Young's modulus and of the shear modulus of elasticity.
Every day, many tons of crystals are produced synthetically in non-biological processes, but by-and-large, the degree of control over nucleation and growth.
Nucleation, Growth, and Aggregation of Mineral Phases: Mechanisms and Kinetic Controls
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Crystal nucleation and growth are first order processes captured in volcanic rocks and record important information about the rates of magmatic processes and chemical evolution of magmas during their ascent and eruption. We have studied glass-rich andesitic tephras from the Central Plateau of the Southern Taupo Volcanic Zone by electron- and ion-microbeam imaging techniques to investigate down to sub-micrometer scale the potential effects of compositional boundary layers CBLs of melt around crystals on the nucleation and growth of mineral phases and the chemistry of crystal growth zones. We find that CBLs may influence the types of mineral phases nucleating and growing, and growth textures such as the development of swallowtails. The chemistry of the CBLs also has the capacity to trigger intermittent overgrowths of nanometer-scale bands of different phases in rapidly growing crystals, resulting in what we refer to as cryptic phase zoning. The existence of cryptic phase zoning has implications for the interpretation of microprobe compositional data, and the resulting inferences made on the conditions of magmatic evolution. Identification of cryptic phase zoning may improve thermobarometric estimates and thus geospeedometric constraints. In future, a more quantitative characterization of CBL formation and its effects on crystal nucleation and growth may contribute to a better understanding of melt rheology and magma ascent processes at the onset of explosive volcanic eruptions, and will likely be of benefit to hazard mitigation efforts.
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