File Name: foreign aid advantages and disadvantages .zip
- FOREIGN AID Definition, Source, Arguments of Foreign Aid
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Assistance in Albania
- 21 Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Aid
- 20 Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Aid to Developing Countries
Home Issues 5. Results-based aid aims to identify outputs or outcomes that can be measured and quantified — that is, results that can be directly linked to development activities. So far, experience of such aid programmes in practice remains limited.
Anywhere in the world, there is a gap between the haves and the have-nots, the rich and the poor. At the local level, this is obvious. A single neighborhood can house both the homeless and those living in mansions. In a larger scale, say international, the same holds true — there rich and highly developed nations, and then there are poor and less developed nations. Even then, when disaster strikes such as that tsunami in Japan, the earthquakes in Bohol, Philippines and Nepal, and the hurricane in the US — no matter how rich or poor a disaster stricken country is, a foreign aid is always welcome.
FOREIGN AID Definition, Source, Arguments of Foreign Aid
Foreign aid , the international transfer of capital , goods, or services from a country or international organization for the benefit of the recipient country or its population. Aid can be economic, military, or emergency humanitarian e. Foreign aid can involve a transfer of financial resources or commodities e.
The resources can take the form of grants or concessional credits e. The most common type of foreign aid is official development assistance ODA , which is assistance given to promote development and to combat poverty. The primary source of ODA—which for some countries represents only a small portion of their assistance—is bilateral grants from one country to another, though some of the aid is in the form of loans, and sometimes the aid is channeled through international organizations and nongovernmental organizations NGOs.
Countries often provide foreign aid to enhance their own security. Thus, economic assistance may be used to prevent friendly governments from falling under the influence of unfriendly ones or as payment for the right to establish or use military bases on foreign soil. Countries also provide aid to relieve suffering caused by natural or man-made disasters such as famine, disease, and war, to promote economic development, to help establish or strengthen political institutions, and to address a variety of transnational problems including disease, terrorism and other crimes, and destruction of the environment.
Because most foreign aid programs are designed to serve several of these purposes simultaneously, it is difficult to identify any one of them as most important.
The earliest form of foreign aid was military assistance designed to help warring parties that were in some way considered strategically important. Its use in the modern era began in the 18th century, when Prussia subsidized some of its allies. The structure and scope of foreign aid today can be traced to two major developments following World War II : 1 the implementation of the Marshall Plan , a U.
These international organizations have played a major role in allocating international funds, determining the qualifications for the receipt of aid, and assessing the impact of foreign aid. Contemporary foreign aid is distinguished not only because it is sometimes humanitarian with little or no self-interest by the donor country but also by its size, amounting to trillions of dollars since the end of World War II, by the large number of governments providing it, and by the transparent nature of the transfers.
The level of foreign aid expenditures following World War II dwarfed prewar assistance. The postwar programs of the United Kingdom, France , and other European former colonial powers grew out of the assistance they had provided to their colonial possessions.
More importantly, however, the United States and Soviet Union and their allies during the Cold War used foreign aid as a diplomatic tool to foster political alliances and strategic advantages; it was withheld to punish states that seemed too close to the other side.
In addition to the Marshall Plan, in the United States provided assistance to Greece and Turkey to help those countries resist the spread of communism , and, following the death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in , communist-bloc countries donated increasing amounts of foreign aid to less-developed countries and to close allies as a means of gaining influence as well as promoting economic development.
For example, Japan developed an extensive foreign aid program—an outgrowth of its reparations payments made following the war—that provided assistance primarily to Asian countries.
In the s the international community , through the United Nations, set 0. However, only a small number of countries Denmark, Luxembourg , the Netherlands, Norway , and Sweden reached that mark. Since the end of the Cold War , the United States has furnished foreign aid as part of peacemaking or peacekeeping initiatives in the Balkans, Northern Ireland , and parts of Africa. Foreign aid also has been used to promote smooth transitions to democracy and capitalism in former communist countries, most notably Russia.
Foreign assistance is still used to promote economic development. Although significant development occurred in much of Asia and Latin America during the second half of the 20th century, many countries in Africa remained severely underdeveloped despite receiving relatively large amounts of foreign aid for long periods.
Foreign aid has been used, particularly in poorer countries, to fund or to monitor elections, to facilitate judicial reforms, and to assist the activities of human rights organizations and labour groups.
In the post-Cold War era, when funding anticommunist governments became a less important criteria for the United States and its allies, promoting democracy was elevated as a criterion in foreign aid programs.
Aid was provided to some countries as an incentive for initiating democratic reforms and was withheld from others as a punishment for resisting such reforms. For example, the International Narcotics Control program allocates U. Since the s many foreign aid sources, notably the IMF, have made aid conditional on market-oriented economic reforms, such as lowering trade barriers and privatization.
Thus, foreign aid has been used as a tool by some institutions and countries to encourage the spread of capitalism. However, this form of aid is heavily stratified; most direct foreign investment has gone to developing countries pursuing policies of trade and economic liberalization and those with large markets e. By the early 21st century, China had become a major provider of foreign aid, especially in Africa. Notably, beginning in , China offered infrastructure loans to a large number of countries in East Asia, Africa, and South America as part of its massive Belt and Road Initiative.
Foreign aid Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Assistance in Albania
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Albania is known as one of the country with the fastest progress among transition economies. The economic development model along the transition period is characterized by a resources redistribution, dedicating them to efficient activities. Save to Library.
Foreign aid , the international transfer of capital , goods, or services from a country or international organization for the benefit of the recipient country or its population. Aid can be economic, military, or emergency humanitarian e. Foreign aid can involve a transfer of financial resources or commodities e. The resources can take the form of grants or concessional credits e. The most common type of foreign aid is official development assistance ODA , which is assistance given to promote development and to combat poverty. The primary source of ODA—which for some countries represents only a small portion of their assistance—is bilateral grants from one country to another, though some of the aid is in the form of loans, and sometimes the aid is channeled through international organizations and nongovernmental organizations NGOs.
21 Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Aid
Foreign aid occurs when the resources of one country are given to another nation as a way to provide supports of some type. Almost any type of resource can qualify as foreign aid, including money, materials, or labor. Governments in the roughly 40 developed countries often provide foreign aid to the developing world as a way to improve resource access and boost the local economy.
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20 Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Aid to Developing Countries
Sometimes, aid can bring long-term problems as well as advantages to the recipient country. The table gives some of the arguments for and against the provision of aid to LEDCs. Advantages and disadvantages of aid Sometimes, aid can bring long-term problems as well as advantages to the recipient country. For Against Emergency aid in times of disaster saves lives.
Как ей удалось стать столь привлекательной. Покраснев, Сьюзан сказала, что созрела довольно поздно. Чуть ли не до двадцати лет она была худой и нескладной и носила скобки на зубах, так что тетя Клара однажды сказала, что Господь Бог наградил ее умом в утешение за невзрачные внешние данные. Господь явно поторопился с утешением, подумал Беккер. Сьюзан также сообщила, что интерес к криптографии появился у нее еще в школе, в старших классах. Президент компьютерного клуба, верзила из восьмого класса Фрэнк Гут-манн, написал ей любовные стихи и зашифровал их, подставив вместо букв цифры.
Он отпил глоток кофе. - А теперь прошу меня извинить. Мне нужно поработать. У Мидж отвисла челюсть. - Извините, сэр… Бринкерхофф уже шел к двери, но Мидж точно прилипла к месту. - Я с вами попрощался, мисс Милкен, - холодно сказал Фонтейн. - Я вас ни в чем не виню.
in Albania showing the positive and negative side of foreign assistance in developing Gross and net flows of aid have their advantages and disadvantages in the analysis on 2 chezchevaux.orgchezchevaux.org; dhe.
И вот эти два интеллектуала, казалось бы, неспособные на вспышки иррациональной влюбленности, обсуждая проблемы лингвистической морфологии и числовые генераторы, внезапно почувствовали себя подростками, и все вокруг окрасилось в радужные тона. Сьюзан ни слова не сказала об истинной причине своей беседы с Дэвидом Беккером - о том, что она собиралась предложить ему место в Отделе азиатской криптографии. Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни. Она снова почувствовала себя школьницей.
Однажды, в первый год своей работы в агентстве, Сьюзан заглянула в комнату новых криптографов за какими-то бумагами. Уже направляясь к двери, она увидела свое фото на доске объявлений и едва не лишилась чувств. На фотографии она была изображена наклонившейся над постелью, в одних трусиках.
Ни один из поднадзорных ему компьютеров АНБ не заразился вирусом, и он был намерен не допустить этого и впредь. Рабочим местом Джаббы была платформа, с которой открывался вид на подземную сверхсекретную базу данных АНБ. Именно здесь вирус мог бы причинить наибольший ущерб, и именно здесь Джабба проводил большую часть времени. Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ.