File Name: the electric car development and future of battery .zip
Lithium-ion batteries LIBs are currently the most suitable energy storage device for powering electric vehicles EVs owing to their attractive properties including high energy efficiency, lack of memory effect, long cycle life, high energy density and high power density.
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- Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles
- Future material demand for automotive lithium-based batteries
- Lithium-Ion Battery Packs & Methods of Cooling Them
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This guide takes you through an overview of how to cool lithium-ion battery packs and evaluates which battery cooling system is the most effective on the market. While advancements have been made in electric vehicle batteries that allow them to deliver more power and require less frequent charges, one of the biggest challenges that remain for battery safety is the ability to design an effective cooling system. Batteries work based on the principle of a voltage differential, and at high temperatures, the electrons inside become excited which decreases the difference in voltage between the two sides of the battery.
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Visionary in markets and business development for the chemical industry. Enjoys race boarding in the mountains. Enthusiastic golfer. All things mobility. Innovative thinker. Entrepreneurial mindset. Strategic partner and consultant for the auto and transport industries. Battery EVs reaching cost and performance parity with combustion engine vehicles was one of three crucial tipping points that we identified as a game-changer for the energy sector.
The impact on global demand for lithium-ion batteries is expected to be enormous, reaching 1, gigawatt-hours GWh by from about GWh in Amid this expected upswing in demand, more efforts are underway globally to rethink the designs and the chemistry inside for longer charges from smaller packs at a lower cost. The push to create the next generation of battery chemistries and compositions has initiated a new era of partnerships between automakers and chemicals companies, raised questions about how best to approach the entire EV supply chain, and prompted renewed debate about supplies of crucial minerals and the need for sustainability.
Efforts to build smaller, cheaper and more sustainable energy-dense batteries are advancing on multiple fronts. Which is the most promising?
The chemicals segment is expected to capture high growth from this continuing trend, with the strongest gains in lithium and nickel chemicals.
One leading chemicals company expects to create car batteries that are half the typical size of today but with twice the capacity, with a charge time of 15 to 20 minutes, by It has invested in cathode active-material research with that goal in mind; in early , it announced that it would be upgrading a plant to efficiently produce cathode materials.
While such claims may not pan out as expected, efforts to expand the manufacturing capacity of lithium-ion batteries are advancing on multiple fronts. Global annual production capacity is expected to increase from GWh in to 1. Currently, these batteries are expected to remain the most prominent through the near term, perhaps the next 15 years.
However, lithium, cobalt and graphite — all typical components used in the batteries, along with nickel, manganese and aluminum — may face supply shortages as demand surges in the medium term. As a result, battery minerals may enter a deficit in the near term over supply disruptions.
On the other hand, this may act as a push for mining and automotive giants to invest in a battery minerals portfolio, a trend not witnessed significantly as of now. The global market for graphite is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5. Other research focuses on how the metal anode battery could be followed by lithium-air batteries, which use oxygen molecules to generate energy. Development is also possible on the cathode side, which would reduce the lithium mix. While in many ways still in their infancy, these batteries promise greater lifespans at a lower cost, with less of an impact on the environment in manufacturing and recycling.
In a flow battery, a membrane separates two liquids that are circulated, and the electrolytes are isolated. However, at this point, they typically require vanadium, which is rarely found in nature and hard to extract. Iron is being explored as an alternative. This energy storage system also requires pumps and moving parts, requiring more maintenance. Through vehicle-to-grid integration, any EV with a battery can act as an asset for electricity grids as a virtual power plant, in which spare capacity is leveraged during peak hours.
This would generate cost savings for consumers, as utility companies would offer them compensation. However, the batteries would be charged and discharged more frequently than anticipated by the car manufacturer. In this scenario, automakers must raise awareness of the resulting battery degradation so they are not unduly blamed. Unlike traditional lithium-ion and redox flow batteries, these do not use a liquid electrolyte, so they can be more durable and are able to resist temperature changes.
A liquid electrolyte requires a separator between the cathode and anode that can raise the cost of the battery and make it bulkier; by contrast, a solid-state electrolyte does not need a separator or protective casing. Also, in lithium-ion batteries, the liquid electrolyte is flammable, which can present safety concerns. Automakers are seen as more enthusiastic about the potential of all-solid-state batteries than most battery makers, who believe it could take at least 10 years before they are widely in use.
One ambitious Japanese automaker is striving to introduce an EV powered by an all-solid-state battery by , while some German automakers are hoping to put forth their versions by the mids. Enthusiasm is growing for this option, which is virtually emission free and requires less time for refuelling compared with battery-operated EVs.
Energy densities by weight or by volume vary broadly, based on how the hydrogen is stored. Various methods exist for storing hydrogen. But a solution that is efficient, light and low-volume enough for small passenger cars, to rival how common liquid fuels are stored, while remaining competitively priced, is still in its infancy.
Companies should consider what battery chemistries are likely and then map out their supply chains. In this evolving marketplace, the automotive and chemicals sectors face fundamental challenges in their business and operating models.
To position themselves for the future, they must consider strategies on how to:. At a minimum, companies should consider what chemistries are likely and then map out their supply chains. For those reasons, automakers and other groups are exploring alternatives to cobalt particularly nickel and seeking ways to reduce cobalt usage.
For automakers, playing a key role in battery design and configuration efforts can yield dividends. Forward-thinking companies should set up centers of excellence to study battery performance and consumer charging behaviors. One automaker did exactly that in , focusing on cell chemistry and collaborating with supplier companies.
Supply Chain Reinvention helps clients effect a fundamental change in their performance to support sales growth, become more cost-competitive, minimize risk and improve operational resilience. While most automakers are outsourcing battery cell production, a few are looking to keep a proactive and tight control over supply chain as a differentiator, because sales of EVs rely on consistently available key materials. Chemicals companies should be cognizant of the trends. Direct procurement by automakers from miners, and even purchases of mines, may be worth exploring, not only to create access to a reliable supply of minerals but also to lock down some associated costs.
For example, most automakers do not have a proper long-term contract for the supply of lithium, likely the most crucial component of batteries, at least in the short to medium term. Another automaker CEO raised the possibility of moving into the mining business to go further down the lithium-ion battery supply chain.
Joint ventures are also an important avenue in this space. A leading automaker has formed a partnership with a chemicals company in Ohio to produce battery cells for EVs. The automaker is planning at least 20 all-electric cars by , but the joint venture could decide to supply batteries to other companies as well. Chemicals companies also have a role to play in battery safety.
One company has designed a new battery pack with composite materials, from polyurethane resin and fibers such as glass or carbon, that offers greater crash protection for the flammable components in lithium-ion batteries. Our teams can help you understand risks to supply chains such as human rights issues, resource constraints, climate change and government payments.
The trend away from cobalt and the increasing demand for lithium illustrates how companies have a vested interest in evaluating the sustainability of the materials comprising their battery supply chain. And when marketing a product that is supposed to be better for the environment, there is more of an advantage for those who can deliver on that promise through accountability and transparency.
Sourcing materials ethically — by avoiding child labor and inhuman working conditions, for example — and computing carbon footprints over the entire battery life cycle are likely to be major considerations for battery manufacturers.
Manufacturing a battery takes a lot of energy, swelling its carbon footprint if the energy used to produce it is not a green source. One automaker has responded by creating a rating for suppliers, and those who breach the code cannot participate in contracts. Executives say that suppliers must self-assess their sustainability conduct across areas such as corruption, environmental protection and human rights through a questionnaire and provide supporting documents, and qualified third parties perform reviews, with on-site checks if necessary.
Another automaker has recently reduced the amount of rare-earth elements used in an EV. It is prepared to eventually eliminate its dependence on these elements, as well as procure its materials such as lithium and cobalt directly. Our pragmatic business approach helps clients to respond to the physical risks of climate change, as well as to operate in new markets and regulatory environments related to carbon and renewable energy. This issue gains urgency because, if global EV sales surge as expected, we will have an ever-growing stockpile of batteries.
With the right systems and markets in place, batteries that may appear to be spent can go on to enjoy second, third and even fourth lives in less-demanding uses. Alternative uses that can be economically viable include storage of power generated by solar and wind, grid stabilization, and backup power supplies.
Automakers that set up divisions focused on the recycling business can continue to capture this value. The battery capacity is one factor to be considered: some cars are intended to be more powerful than others, and as a result, the future uses of their batteries may be better suited for different purposes. In some cases, reuse may be a regulatory imperative — for example, in China, the sellers of the battery assume responsibility for how it should be repurposed, motivating them to consider longevity, performance and recyclable technology.
Similar efforts for batteries may fit within these already existing ecosystems. And if companies produce standardized cells in batteries, those cells have stationary and mobile applications as well, beyond uses in cars. To thrive, automotive and chemicals companies must confront the duality of growth, plotting for an immediate future where electric vehicles become much more prominent in the market, while looking further out onto the horizon, where other possibilities such as hydrogen power become more commercially viable.
Flexibility, sustainability and partnerships hold the key for success in this rapidly changing world. EY is a global leader in assurance, consulting, strategy and transactions, and tax services.
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Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles
Visionary in markets and business development for the chemical industry. Enjoys race boarding in the mountains. Enthusiastic golfer. All things mobility. Innovative thinker.
Future material demand for automotive lithium-based batteries
The era of electric vehicles EVs is in sight, and batteries are poised to become a leading power source for mobility. To capture market share and economies of scale, battery cell producers are adding massive amounts of production capacity. To survive in this challenging market, producers will need to slash prices to fully use their capacity; even manufacturers of battery cells with innovative features will not be exempt. To preserve their margins while cutting prices, producers will need to reduce their manufacturing costs. To achieve operational excellence, battery producers must adopt the concepts of the factory of future, in which Industry 4.
A battery electric vehicle BEV , pure electric vehicle , only-electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle EV that exclusively uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs , with no secondary source of propulsion e. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines ICEs for propulsion. They derive all power from battery packs and thus have no internal combustion engine, fuel cell , or fuel tank. BEVs include — but are not limited to   — motorcycles, bicycles, scooters, skateboards, railcars, watercraft, forklifts, buses, trucks, and cars.
Lithium-Ion Battery Packs & Methods of Cooling Them
An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car. In the 21st century, EVs have seen a resurgence due to technological developments, and an increased focus on renewable energy and the potential reduction of transportation's impact on climate change and other environmental issues. Project Drawdown describes electric vehicles as one of the best contemporary solutions for addressing climate change.
Advances in Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles provides an in-depth look into the research being conducted on the development of more efficient batteries capable of long distance travel. The text contains an introductory section on the market for battery and hybrid electric vehicles, then thoroughly presents the latest on lithium-ion battery technology. Readers will find sections on battery pack design and management, a discussion of the infrastructure required for the creation of a battery powered transport network, and coverage of the issues involved with end-of-life management for these types of batteries. Andrews in Scotland and from the Chalmers University in Sweden. In his academic career the focus was on material research. His experience includes also fuel cells mainly low temperature FCs and supercaps. His interest in battery safety goes back to the work with the very large battery safety testing center of the ZSW.
Most plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles use lithium-ion batteries like these. Lithium-ion batteries are currently used in most portable consumer electronics such as cell phones and laptops because of their high energy per unit mass relative to other electrical energy storage systems. They also have a high power-to-weight ratio, high energy efficiency, good high-temperature performance, and low self-discharge. Most components of lithium-ion batteries can be recycled, but the cost of material recovery remains a challenge for the industry. The U. Department of Energy is also supporting the Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Prize to identify solutions for collecting, sorting, storing, and transporting spent and discarded lithium-ion batteries for eventual recycling and materials recovery. Most of today's PHEVs and EVs use lithium-ion batteries, though the exact chemistry often varies from that of consumer electronics batteries.
This book covers the development of electric cars from early development to pure electric, fuel cell and new hybrid models in production. Chapters cover: the.
This book surveys state-of-the-art research on and developments in lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles. It summarizes their features in terms of performance, cost, service life, management, charging facilities, and safety. Vehicle electrification is now commonly accepted as a means of reducing fossil-fuels consumption and air pollution. At present, every electric vehicle on the road is powered by a lithium-ion battery. Currently, batteries based on lithium-ion technology are ranked first in terms of performance, reliability and safety.
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