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- Treaty of the Pyrenees
- The Peoples, Languages, and History of the Pyrenees Region
- Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees
- Pyrenees without Frontiers: the French- Spanish Border in Modern Times, 17th to 20th Centuries
Negotiations were conducted on Pheasant Island , situated in the middle of the Bidasoa river on the border between the two countries, which has remained a French-Spanish condominium ever since. By , France began to interfere in Spanish politics, aiding the revolt in Catalonia , while Spain responded by aiding the Fronde revolt in France in
Treaty of the Pyrenees
Charles Tilly, Peter Sahlins. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
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The Peoples, Languages, and History of the Pyrenees Region
The Making of France and exicacUa. Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN alk. Pyrenees France and Spain —History. Cerdana Spain and France — History.
Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. Berkeley and Los Article PDF first page preview. Article PDF first page.
Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees
Historically and culturally among the most important nations in the Western world, France has also played a highly significant role in international affairs, with former colonies in every corner of the globe. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea , the Alps and the Pyrenees , France has long provided a geographic, economic, and linguistic bridge joining northern and southern Europe. The French people look to the state as the primary guardian of liberty, and the state in turn provides a generous program of amenities for its citizens, from free education to health care and pension plans. Even so, this centralist tendency is often at odds with another long-standing theme of the French nation: the insistence on the supremacy of the individual. This tendency toward individualism joins with a pluralist outlook and a great interest in the larger world.
This book is an account of two dimension of state and nation building in France and Spain since the seventeenth century--the invention of a national boundary line and the making of Frenchmen and Spaniards. It is also a history of Catalan rural society in the Cerdanya, a valley in the eastern Pyrenees divided between Spain and France in This study shuttles between two levels, between the center and the periphery.
Pyrenees without Frontiers: the French- Spanish Border in Modern Times, 17th to 20th Centuries
For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. Historically, the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre extended on both sides of the mountain range. In Greek mythology , Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene gives birth to a serpent and runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces. After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains.
Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe occupying most about 82 percent of the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish mainland is bordered to the south and east almost entirely by the Mediterranean Sea except for the small British territory of Gibraltar ; to the north by France , Andorra , and the Bay of Biscay ; and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal. It has an average altitude of m. In the extreme south of Spain's mainland lie the Straits of Gibraltar , which separate the Iberian peninsula and the rest of Europe from Ceuta and Morocco in North Africa. The Spanish autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla are Spanish enclaves lying in mainland Africa in territory claimed by Morocco, are located on the coast of the Alboran Sea, with Ceuta at the very mouth of the Strait of Gibraltar, and Melilla closer to the border with Algeria. The Canary Islands , geographically and geologically part of the African continent , are washed by the Atlantic Ocean.
Traditionally considered as being fixed since the seventeenth century, the French-Spanish border was nevertheless the subject of a slow and difficult process of demarcation throughout the nineteenth century. The difficulties can notably be explained by the complex social reality of a long-crossed border, as well as a cross-border organization that local inhabitants refuse to abandon less out of a refusal of national construction than a defense of a socioeconomic system based on an open border. Beginning in the nineteenth century, these sometimes secret cross-border circulations were coupled with intense political circulations that made the French-Spanish border a political space in its own right throughout the modern period. This border has apparently shifted very little since then, with the exception of events such as the departmentalization of Catalonia and its addition to the France of departments under the First Empire , a departmentalization that was never made official. The accuracy of this general framework nevertheless obscures the slow process by which the borderline in the Pyrenees was delineated.
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By Dr. It is also linguistically heterogeneous. All of these languages have co-official character in certain regions of Spain, although not in France.
Ну и ловок, подумала Сьюзан. На все у него готов ответ. - Отпусти меня! - попросил Хейл. - Я ничего не сделал. - Ничего не сделал? - вскричала Сьюзан, думая, почему Стратмор так долго не возвращается.