File Name: neurotransmitters in the brain and their functions .zip
Dopamine DA , a contraction of 3,4- d ihydr o xy p henethyl amine is a neurotransmitter that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.
How Brain Chemicals Influence Mood and Health
2005, Number 6
They are the molecules used by the nervous system to transmit messages between neurons , or from neurons to muscles. Communication between two neurons happens in the synaptic cleft the small gap between the synapses of neurons. Here, electrical signals that have travelled along the axon are briefly converted into chemical ones through the release of neurotransmitters, causing a specific response in the receiving neuron. A neurotransmitter influences a neuron in one of three ways: excitatory, inhibitory or modulatory. An excitatory transmitter promotes the generation of an electrical signal called an action potential in the receiving neuron, while an inhibitory transmitter prevents it.
Neurotransmitters all serve a different purpose in the brain and body. Although there are several different minor and major neurotransmitters, we will focus on these major six: acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA, and glutamate. Neurotransmitters are chemical molecules synthesized within brain cells, which allow the transfer of signalling messages between brain cells. Whilst the signals which are carried within each cell are electrical, chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, are critical at the joins between cells to enable the transfer of information across the gaps. There are many major and minor signalling chemicals in the brain.
What are neurotransmitters?
These target cells may be in glands, muscles, or other neurons. Billions of neurotransmitter molecules work constantly to keep our brains functioning, managing everything from our breathing to our heartbeat to our learning and concentration levels. They can also affect a variety of psychological functions such as fear, mood, pleasure, and joy. In order for neurons to send messages throughout the body, they need to be able to communicate with one another to transmit signals. However, neurons are not simply connected to one another.
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The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body.
Он жертвует всеми планами, связанными с Цифровой крепостью. Хейл не мог поверить, что Стратмор согласился упустить такую возможность: ведь черный ход был величайшим шансом в его жизни.
В одной урановое, в другой плутониевое. Это два разных элемента. Люди на подиуме перешептывались. - Уран и плутоний! - воскликнул Джабба, и в его голосе впервые послышались нотки надежды. - Нам нужно установить разницу между этими элементами.
Они бежали за уже движущимся автобусом, крича и размахивая руками. Водитель, наверное, снял ногу с педали газа, рев двигателя поутих, и молодые люди поравнялись с автобусом. Шедший сзади, метрах в десяти, Беккер смотрел на них, не веря своим глазам. Фотография внезапно обрела резкость, но он понимал, что увиденное слишком невероятно. Один шанс к миллиону.