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- Islamic marketing – a challenger to the classical marketing canon?
- Six guns and society : a structural study of the Western
The purpose of this paper is to debate what if anything is Islamic marketing? And link developments in this field to the wider marketing paradigm. Marketing is both a concept and lived experience, manifest in the competitive exchange of commoditised thoughts, feelings, actions and objects — between engaged individuals and collectives.
The exhibition is accompanied by a comprehensive retrospective of German expressionist films and a special retrospective devoted to director Friedrich W. Once upon a time in the world of Disney at the Grand Palais is a much larger and detailed exhibition, concentrating on the European influences on the famous filmmaker and the team of animators who worked for him. It reveals that, contrary to popular belief, Walt Disney possessed a wealth of cultural knowledge and took much of his inspiration from different artistic and literary sources. It coincides with the Weimar Republic and the creative spirit of the time.
Islamic marketing – a challenger to the classical marketing canon?
Based on research first begun in Praia capital of Cape Verde into the new public organization of its streets and squares — increasingly occupied by cars and other types of motor vehicles —, this article develops a description of the social universe of private group transport on the island of Santiago, and analyses its relationship with road crashes. Its chief focus is the hiace , a generic term designating transportation vans in Cape Verdean society although they are named after the Hiace model manufactured by Toyota, in this research the word is used as an emic concept.
Thus, through the field work completed to date, it outlines the social processes and dimensions in which road crashes involving hiaces take place. It furthermore reflects on the antagonistic experiences caused by the use of space by both motor vehicle drivers and the pedestrians themselves — space being understood as a social process — in relation to the living conditions and different experiences of the people of Cape Verde.
This vehicle has become the fundamental element of privately owned interurban passenger transport there. On the basis of the field work I undertook, 2 I examine the social processes and dimensions embodied in this type of transport, with emphasis on the broad spectrum of circumstances in which road crashes involving hiaces occur.
In the following pages I will offer a series of comprehensive explanations — provisional at all times — of the causes of this high road accident rate within the context of the urban transformation processes taking place on the island. Consequently, the specific aim of this article is to present a series of arguments as to why hiaces tend to go wrong, and especially concerning the relationship between the system of hiace ownership and road crashes.
Naturally, all this has involved time and situations shared in every type of context. On the one hand, there is the general institutional planning of space use in streets and squares — by governing politicians, economists, urban planners and designers, architects and so on — associated with the resulting public discourses and prevailing media representations on the supposed virtues of these planning projects.
On the other, there are the empirical uses and real needs of pedestrians based on their own experiences and social contexts. In African urban environments one observes a certain historical lack of standardisation by the public administrations in the organisation of space, in both city streets and squares and urban and interurban road traffic, and the growing occupation of these spaces by motor vehicles.
It should be kept in mind that the concept of public space owes its success to the use made of it by politicians and urban governors, architects and urban planners over the past 25 years. Lyn H. According to Lefebvre , space appears as a framework, a reproduction and an appropriation of the persons experiencing it.
Thus space, as a social phenomenon produced and reproduced by the practices of people and societies, invariably becomes a social process — a social process in ongoing development; a dynamic space that, over and above the standardisations of urban designers, planners and organisers, is the object of its building and use by those who travel in it.
In contrast, in Somada and Praia most drivers work for someone else. In this case, Carlos M. In other words, the complete social fact appears in three dimensions at once: we find the sociological dimension and its synchronic aspects; the historical dimension and its diachronic aspects, and finally the physio-psychological dimension. How can the risk perceptions of many drivers be verified if not by noting their different risk experiences depending on whether they are salaried drivers or driver-owners?
In this respect social is real to the extent that it takes place within a society in which we can only investigate one moment of its development. Hiace transport as a complete social fact does not cover merely economic or legal aspects, but also overlaps aspects having to do with politics, religions, labour, gender relations, the past, the present and different notions of the future, ordinary and extraordinary events, webs of meanings that at times are perforated, consents and impositions, power relations and forms of solidarity, etc.
A serious approach to road crashes required a minimum contextualisation of this field of study in relation to its contexts. The plethora of reasons approached in order to understand this increasing rate of motor vehicle accidents on the roads, right in the historic centre of the capital Praia and in the small towns, reflect not only a concatenation of antagonistic experiences in the streets, but also a broad spectrum of conflictive social dimensions.
On an interurban scale, the competition or encounter between traffic and pedestrians is part of the everyday landscape. The volcanic orography characterising the island of Santiago, the density and distribution of vegetation during rainy periods — reaching out to the very roads — and the precarious condition of communication routes once built, not only in terms of the lack of sidewalks for pedestrians — non-existent on interurban roads — but also of the uneven sides of roads, in other words, the absence of spaces along which the pedestrians can travel on foot — even at their own risk—, make it possible to understand why they find themselves having to compete with vehicles when in transit.
Despite this, the high frequency of passing hiace vans, particularly at certain times of the day, adds an equally high degree of risk for pedestrians: this occurs on the interurban thoroughfares themselves and in the small population hubs that they cross. On many occasions these are students, from four to 18 years of age who, alone or in groups but unaccompanied by adults, go back and forth to school; on others, they are adults, even with livestock — characteristic in villages like Tchon-Bon in the north, close to Tarrafal.
In the s and earlier, these were dirt roads, not even made of cobblestones, and their use by pedestrians should never have been extended to include vehicular traffic. The culture and road experience, then, fail to inculcate the type of respect, alarm, or attention shown by pedestrians in other comparable contexts in the industrialised societies in the north of the island.
In other words, even though hiace vans have been familiar to residents and pedestrians for 20 years, culturally speaking they are still regarded as newcomers. In other words, the Cape Verdean social logic of passing time, chatting, watching and romping in the streets surrounding the homes has little to do with the numerous uses that vehicles make of the space.
And yet it is the people who have had to adjust to the uses made by drivers of the roads and the streets. And, unquestionably, those that step hard on the accelerator fail to take into consideration the potential risk situations that their transit causes.
On the whole they are technically very good despite having received a formal road safety training that tends not to stress the most conflictive aspects of driving. However the oppressive routine caused by stiff labour competition and the everyday toll inflicted by the job often leads them to travel at high speed.
It is not the slightest bit unusual, for example, for hiace drivers to run over chickens and small animals right in the settlements, or dogs on the interurban roads. The recurrence of head-on or lateral collisions, people being run over, and crashes involving hiaces alone thus demands that we take a closer look at the social factors that influence how driving is conducted and its consequences.
It is a mere summary devoid of the direct transcriptions of the experiences narrated by the actors themselves. This creates the need to make as many trips as possible, thus accounting for the high speed of many hiaces and the risk entailed in using road infrastructures that at times are inadequate. In the Calheta area in northeastern Santiago and Tarrafal in the north far fewer accidents take place.
The majority accumulate on the outskirts of Praia, where there is significant vehicle transit. Such traffic build-up reveals extremely tight competition for clientele and the need to reach the destination quickly in the hopes of undertaking yet another trip as soon as possible in order to satisfy the urge to earn. Be that as it may, the types of vehicle ownership and their link with labour conditions clearly influence the way that driving is performed.
This is seen not only in the surface marking, i. Parallel to this, road lighting is virtually non-existent. The police do not supervise in any daily or rigorously disciplined manner, either on the roads or in the towns, except during major operations prompted by the celebration of festivals drawing people from different towns.
A police officer tends to work in the same place where he lives, where he has his friends and family. According to both high-ranking police officers, and ordinary traffic agents, they do not have the sufficient technical and human means. Despite the truth of this, certain drivers and passengers cause another practice to be added, one that is invisible to the public eye in so many societies: a permissiveness, up to a point generalised, that the police on the whole maintain with respect to traffic involving vehicles whose owners are themselves police officers or state officials.
Furthermore, certain overload situations experienced by many passengers are examples of solidarity among drivers, as is the case of the last hiace to leave at night, i. The absence of interurban public transport makes dependence on hiaces absolute. In the end the police have to perform the supervisory role that should be played by the citizens themselves. Here one must stress the extent to which risk perception differs from one social and urban-planning context to another.
Indeed, one thinks of such concepts as risk society Beck — for example, on account of the technological changes in transport methods — and the surmounting of this very risk by its space, time and social limits Beck — exemplified in a situation as simple as the sale, in Europe, of a second-hand hiace in poor condition that will see its precarious driving life prolonged on Santiago roads.
Smeed relates the increase in risky behaviour by motor vehicles to improved infrastructures and technology. Bellaby , on the other hand, is of the opinion that discipline in vehicle driving behaviour only exists when drivers are accustomed to coexisting in an environment of motor traffic density.
Also Adams refers to a reduction in road crashes as a response to increased road perception. Since , the hiace vehicle has been designed to take more and more passengers: first 12, then 15 and finally 18 passengers, in the case of the new models. Personal experience has shown this author more than once that up to 25 or 30 people can be crammed inside, even though some may be children or babies. And often these people will add their own load — as is the case of fishmongers or other types of vendors —, which tends to accumulate in the second and last rows.
Many younger drivers are unaware of this and the results are disastrous: any sudden slamming of the brakes or abrupt change of direction will cause the load being transported to shift and under such circumstances, this very shift can have potentially fatal consequences. Made also with cobblestones unlike some of the speed bumps found in Europe, manufactured with softer materials and winding forms, yet not as pronounced , these curved elevations across the road are graphically distinguished from the pavement continuum thanks to bright colours.
Breakdowns and damage occur repeatedly in wheels, suspensions and steering, as both drivers and mechanics attest. Indeed, such drivers stop literally wherever they like, even just beyond an extremely rare traffic sign prohibiting just that: stopping.
The widespread disorder results in tie-ups in the midst of a road trip, caused in general by a pedestrian flagging down the vehicle in the hopes of boarding or because a passenger informs the driver, with next to no warning, of the place in which he or she wishes to de-board. I myself have been not only a witness but also an actor in both situations on dozens of occasions. In a minute trip from Praia to Tarrafal, I witnessed six halts right in the middle of the road, two of which even included considerable backing-up.
Another example is the overall refusal to wear seat belts, even though the driver and first-row passengers are obliged by law to use them. This must unquestionably be contextualised within the cultural role of imbibing grogu — the very potent alcoholic beverage of the island, distilled from sugar cane and within reach of humble Cape Verdeans, since beer is out of their price range.
It is here that the system of ownership, specifically the one in force for the most part in Praia and Somada, is recognised as a central element for provoking overall high risk situations.
Nor is there a hiace passengers association, meaning that at present any type of intervention concerning the organisation of hiace transport depends on the whims of the public administrations. On occasion, there are interpersonal agreements between passenger and driver that ensure a certain trust that the departure will take place at the appointed time.
It should be mentioned that not even the designated pick-up and drop-off points are properly equipped, meaning that passengers must often wait interminably under the blazing central African sun or withstand the desert wind from the continent to the east, without a single shelter or even a bench to sit on.
What parameters then are used to measure social risk management? Regardless of the types of relations that may develop between the driver and female passengers — romantic or sexual, consented or negotiated — the experience of certain young drivers as little road gods 16 aggravates the likelihood of risk situations.
Stronger commitments lead to higher speed or simply degrading service: stopping to drink grogu, or else halting to comply with the requests for a tryst by a girlfriend who lives somewhere along the route a situation that is perhaps unusual now, but certainly common enough if we look back in time, and which entails a broad spectrum of possibilities in terms of the empirical connotations of the encounter.
The financial downturn has meant that many people cannot or need not travel, owing to unemployment — as different drivers and residents of different small towns and villages point out —, the consequences of which directly affect the length of working days and the conditions under which the trips are carried out: the drivers are trapped between the need to make the trip cost-effective, which depends on the passengers transported, and the increased amount of time spent recruiting passengers — the waiting time for those already inside the vehicle, which in the case of departure from Praia, at midday or in the afternoon, can be up to two hours, or one hour from Tarrafal to Praia in the morning.
This decrease would explain the intensified competition between hiace and taxi drivers in Praia and at its international airport during this period. If one adds the increased number of hiace vehicles in circulation, one begins to grasp the complexity of the situation.
Though it is impossible to establish with any degree of certainty the different consequences that this would have on the use of space by Cape Verdean pedestrians, one can safely say that in many respects such a regulation would likely be to the further detriment of pedestrians as opposed to motor vehicles.
Nonetheless, it would probably also bring about an improvement in both working conditions and in the transport of those concerned, and hence a foreseeable reduction in road crashes in urban and interurban areas. This text has sought to relate the analytical perspective and the type of questions and approaches that guide our research into the uses of public space with our specific study objective: the social world of hiaces.
After contextualising the social phenomenon of interurban group transport on the island of Santiago, we have analysed, described and discussed 12 possible interrelated causes of road crashes involving hiaces.
These causes span a variety of social dimensions that can be synthetically classified into eight main sections: 1 the system of property of hiaces and the labour relations of the salaried drivers and their relationship with speed and driving styles; 2 the technical conditions of pavements and roads, and also the vehicles; 3 the road regulations and the real role played by the traffic police; 4 the antagonistic appropriations of the space by pedestrians and drivers based on different risk perceptions — associated with the hazardous patterns of social and traffic behaviour of many drivers; 5 the conditions in which the hiace journey takes place with overloading, loud music, consumption of alcohol or other drugs by certain drivers, etc.
Thus, different spheres of Cape Verdean society have been interrelated — economic, legal, political, labour, gender-based, cultural… — which are brought to bear in a particular way in the hiace world. London, Sage. Cambridge, Polity. Madrid, Akal, Paris, Karthala.
Madrid, La Catarata. New York, Russell Sage Foundation. Lisbon, September. Praia, Instituto Caboverdiano do Livro e do Disco. Leiden and Boston, Brill. Madrid, Alianza. Barcelona, Edicions de Barcelona, El Viejo Topo. Barcelona, Gedisa.
Six guns and society : a structural study of the Western
Blake and Edwin O. Chaffee and Michael J. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.
You will need the following chapters: 20 - 24 Vol 3 , 32 - 36 Vol 4. Sixguns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western It is the study of environment in a scientific approach of Physical, chemical and Biological context. Phone and Address Directories, I will leave the pitfalls of traditional guided reading for another post - you. Like we But what are some of the tools that He gives us to fight with. My cousin Rachel [braille] [Daphne Du Maurier].
Social Research Glossary. Citation reference: Harvey, L. This is a dynamic glossary and the author would welcome any e-mail suggestions for additions or amendments. Cri tical social research. Critical social research CSR is a term encompassing an approach to social enquiry that attempts to go beneath surface appearance by critically engaging with prevailing conceptualisations of the social world. CSR has a long and sustained tradition in social science and is found in the work of Marx and subsequent Marxists , feminists , anti-racists, structuralists , film theorists, post-colonialists and so on. Positivism is primarily concerned with causal explanation and phenomenology with interpreting the meaning of social processes and actions.
the variations in the genre of the western is Will Wright's study Six Guns and. Society: A Structural Study of the Western (). Wright relates analysis. Wright reads the plot structures of top-grossing western films in the period. to
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Structured cowboys. Most criticism of the popular arts has had as its raison d'etre an assumption that these works have a particularly direct relation to our society and can tell us a great deal about our culture and ourselves. But the nature of that relation is so complex and little understood that much writing on popular culture degenerates into narrow analyses of a particular social phenomena, seen in a direct causal connection to a corresponding narrow aspect of movies, rock music, print media, or television. The result is seen in protests against violence in films, protests that assume movie violence causes violence in the streets, or "national character" portraits which find Americans to be violent because our films mirror this trait.
Based on research first begun in Praia capital of Cape Verde into the new public organization of its streets and squares — increasingly occupied by cars and other types of motor vehicles —, this article develops a description of the social universe of private group transport on the island of Santiago, and analyses its relationship with road crashes. Its chief focus is the hiace , a generic term designating transportation vans in Cape Verdean society although they are named after the Hiace model manufactured by Toyota, in this research the word is used as an emic concept. Thus, through the field work completed to date, it outlines the social processes and dimensions in which road crashes involving hiaces take place. It furthermore reflects on the antagonistic experiences caused by the use of space by both motor vehicle drivers and the pedestrians themselves — space being understood as a social process — in relation to the living conditions and different experiences of the people of Cape Verde.
Вот тут-то вы и рассмотрели его кольцо. Глаза Клушара расширились. - Так полицейский сказал вам, что это я взял кольцо. Беккер смущенно подвинулся. Клушар вдруг разбушевался.
Вы можете заметить, - продолжал Смит, - что взгляд его устремлен. Он ни разу не посмотрел по сторонам. - Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит. - Если бы Танкадо подозревал некий подвох, он инстинктивно стал бы искать глазами убийцу.
Это было его местью. Она посвятила Дэвида в некоторые секреты криптографии и, желая держать его в состоянии полной готовности к неожиданностям, посылала ему записки, зашифрованные не слишком сложным образом. Список необходимых покупок, любовные признания - все приходило к нему в зашифрованном виде. Это была игра, и со временем Дэвид стал неплохим шифровальщиком. А потом решил отплатить ей той же монетой.
По выражению его лица было ясно: то, что он собирается сказать, не понравится директору и остальным. - Этот червь, - начал он, - не обычный переродившийся цикл. Это избирательный цикл. Иными словами, это червь со своими пристрастиями.
Внезапно Сьюзан вспомнила, что он должен быть в лаборатории систем безопасности. Она кружила по пустому кабинету, все еще не преодолев ужас, который вызвало у нее общение с Хейлом. Надо выбираться из шифровалки. Черт с ней, с Цифровой крепостью.