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- The Hive And The Honey-Bee
- Beekeeping Classics & Pioneers of Modern Beekeeping
- The Hive And The Honey-Bee
William Herrod-Hempsall. Serendipitously, direct descendents of F. Sladen lived locally in Warrenton, Virginia.
In Canada, there is a growing need for additional honey bee colonies to satisfy the demand for pollination services and compensate for high winter colony mortality. Experimental colonies were monitored from July to June , and several parameters were measured to evaluate their strength and the presence of pathogens. Results showed no statistical difference in colony strength between methods.
The Hive And The Honey-Bee
A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Though the word beehive is commonly used to describe the nest of any bee colony, scientific and professional literature distinguishes nest from hive. Nest is used to discuss colonies that house themselves in natural or artificial cavities or are hanging and exposed.
Several species of Apis live in colonies, but for honey production the western honey bee Apis mellifera and the eastern honey bee Apis cerana are the main species kept in hives. The nest's internal structure is a densely packed group of hexagonal prismatic cells made of beeswax , called a honeycomb. The bees use the cells to store food honey and pollen and to house the brood eggs, larvae , and pupae. Beehives serve several purposes: production of honey, pollination of nearby crops, housing supply bees for apitherapy treatment, and to try to mitigate the effects of colony collapse disorder.
In America, hives are commonly transported so that bees can pollinate crops in other areas. Honey bees use caves, rock cavities and hollow trees as natural nesting sites. In warmer climates they may occasionally build exposed hanging nests. Members of other subgenera have exposed aerial combs. The nest is composed of multiple honeycombs, parallel to each other, with a relatively uniform bee space.
It usually has a single entrance. Western honey bees prefer nest cavities approximately 45 litres in volume and avoid those smaller than 10 or larger than litres. The bees often smooth the bark surrounding the nest entrance, and coat the cavity walls with a thin layer of hardened plant resin called propolis. Honeycombs are attached to the walls along the cavity tops and sides, but small passageways are left along the comb edges. The peanut -shaped queen cells are normally built at the lower edge of the comb.
Bees were kept in man-made hives in Egypt in antiquity. The archaeologist Amihai Mazar cites 30 intact hives that were discovered in the ruins of the city of Rehov 2, residents in BC, Israelites and Canaanites. This is evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in Israel, approximately 4, years ago.
The beehives, made of straw and unbaked clay, were found in orderly rows, with a total of hives, many broken. Ezra Marcus from the University of Haifa said the discovery provided a glimpse of ancient beekeeping seen in texts and ancient art from the Near East. An altar decorated with fertility figurines was found alongside the hives and may indicate religious practices associated with beekeeping.
While beekeeping predates these ruins, this is the oldest apiary yet discovered. Traditional beehives simply provided an enclosure for the bee colony. Because no internal structures were provided for the bees, the bees created their own honeycomb within the hives. The comb is often cross-attached and cannot be moved without destroying it. This is sometimes called a fixed-frame hive to differentiate it from the modern movable-frame hives. Harvest generally destroyed the hives, though there were some adaptations using extra top baskets which could be removed when the bees filled them with honey.
These were gradually supplanted with box hives of varying dimensions, with or without frames, and finally replaced by newer modern equipment. Due to this harvesting, traditional beehives typically provided more beeswax , but far less honey, than a modern hive.
Mud hives are still used in Egypt and Siberia. These are long cylinders made from a mixture of unbaked mud, straw, and dung. Clay tiles were the customary homes of kept bees in the eastern end of the Mediterranean. Long cylinders of baked clay were used in ancient Egypt , the Middle East and to some extent in Greece , Italy and Malta.
They sometimes were used singly, but more often stacked in rows to provide some shade, at least for those not on top. Keepers would smoke one end to drive the bees to the other end while they harvested honey. Skeps, baskets placed open-end-down, have been used to house bees for some years. Believed to have been first used in Ireland, they were initially made from wicker plastered with mud and dung but after the Middle Ages, almost all were made of straw.
In northern and western Europe , skeps were made of coils of grass or straw. In its simplest form, there is a single entrance at the bottom of the skep. Again, there is no internal structure provided for the bees and the colony must produce its own honeycomb, which is attached to the inside of the skep. Skeps have two disadvantages; beekeepers cannot inspect the comb for diseases and pests, and honey removal is difficult and often results in the destruction of the entire colony.
To get the honey beekeepers either drove the bees out of the skep or, by using a bottom extension called an eke or a top extension called a cap, sought to create a comb with only honey in it. Quite often the bees were killed, sometimes using lighted sulfur , to allow the honeycomb to be removed. Skeps could also be squeezed in a vice to extract the honey.
As of , most US states prohibited the use of skeps because they cannot be inspected for disease and parasites. Later skep designs included a smaller woven basket cap on top over a small hole in the main skep. This cap acted as a crude super, allowing some honey to be extracted with less destruction of brood and bees. In England, such an extension piece consisting of a ring of about 4 or 5 coils of straw placed below a straw beehive to give extra room for brood rearing was called an eke , imp or nadir.
An eke was used to give just a bit of extra room, or to "eke" some more space, a nadir is a larger extension used when a full story was needed beneath. The term is derived from Old Norse skeppa , "basket". In England the thickness of the coil of straw was controlled using a ring of leather or piece of cow's horn called a "girth" and the coils of straw could be sewn together using strips of briar. Likenesses of skeps can be found in paintings, carvings and old manuscripts.
The skep is often used on signs as an indication of industry "the busy bee". In the late 18th century, more complex skeps appeared with wooden tops with holes in them over which glass jars were placed. The comb was built in the glass jars , making the designs commercially attractive. On their side, these wooden posts came in two forms bicuspid or "twisted" like an upside-down bell , though this was less common.
The wooden posts were often wood with painted faces or painted on a blackboard. These wooden skeps, with one, or sometimes two spouts on each side, were held by a pole from which they could be turned down. They were called "bicuspid" because they looked like the handle of a bicuspid or "twisted" bell. In the eastern United States, especially in the southeast, sections of hollow trees were used until the 20th century. These were called "gums" because they often were from black gum Nyssa sylvatica trees.
Sections of the hollow trees were set upright in "bee yards" or apiaries. Sometimes sticks or crossed sticks were placed under a board cover to give an attachment for the honeycomb. As with skeps, the harvest of honey from these destroyed the colony.
Often the harvester would kill the bees before even opening their nest. This was done by inserting a metal container of burning sulfur into the gum. Natural tree hollows and artificially hollowed tree trunks were widely used in the past by beekeepers in Central Europe. Harvest of honey from these did not destroy the colony, as only a protective piece of wood was removed from the opening and smoke was used to temporarily pacify the bees.
Bee gums are still used by beekeepers today, for bee species like Apis mellifera mellifera whose honey output is less than that of the more productive honeybee. Unlike most beehives which are optimized for Apis mellifera and Apis cerana , the bee gum allows housing of other bee species.
The bee gum allows the bees themselves to organize their nest. Part of the reason why bee gums are still used is that this allows the producers of the honey to distinguish themselves from other honey producers and to ask a higher price for the honey. The earliest recognizably modern designs of beehives arose in the 19th century, though they were perfected from intermediate stages of progress made in the 18th century.
Wildman also described  a further development, using hives with "sliding frames" for the bees to build their comb, foreshadowing more modern uses of movable-comb hives.
Wildman acknowledged the advances in knowledge of bees previously made by Swammerdam , Maraldi, and de Reaumur — he included a lengthy translation of Reaumur's account of the natural history of bees — and he also described the initiatives of others in designing hives for the preservation of bee-life when taking the harvest, citing in particular reports from Brittany dating from the s, due to Comte de la Bourdonnaye. In Petro Prokopovych , the founder of commercial beekeeping in Ukraine, invented one of the first beehive frames which allowed an easier honey harvest.
The Langstroth hive was the first successful top-opened hive with movable frames. Hives can be vertical or horizontal. There are three main types of modern hive in common use worldwide:. Most hives have been optimized for Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Some other hives have been designed and optimized for some meliponines such as Melipona beecheii. The key innovation of this type of hive was the use of vertically hanging frames on which bees build their comb.
The modern Langstroth hive consists of: . Named for their inventor, Rev. Lorenzo Langstroth , Langstroth hives are probably the most commonly used. Langstroth patented his design in the United-States on October 5,  originally for comb honey production but it has become the standard style hive for many of the world's beekeepers, both professional and amateurs. A common feature of Langstroth hives is the use of specific bee spaces between frames and other parts so that bees are not likely to glue together nor fill these spaces with burr comb : comb joining adjacent frames.
The sizes of hive bodies rectangular boxes without tops or bottoms placed one on top of another and internal frames are relatively well defined for a particular style. Langstroth hive bodies are rectangular in shape and can be made from a variety of materials that can be stacked to expand the usable space for the bees. Inside the boxes, frames are hung parallel to each other. Langstroth frames are thin rectangular structures made of wood or plastic and typically have a plastic or wax foundation on which the bees draw out the comb.
The frames hold the beeswax honeycomb formed by the bees. Eight or ten frames side by side depending on the size of the box will fill the hive body and leave the right amount of bee space between each frame and between the end frames and the hive body.
Langstroth frames can be reinforced with wire, making it possible to spin the honey out of the comb in a centrifuge. As a result, the empty frames and comb can be returned to the beehive for re-filling by the bees. Creating honeycomb involves a significant energy investment, conservatively estimated at 6.
This class of hives includes several other styles, which differ mainly in the size and number of frames used.
Beekeeping Classics & Pioneers of Modern Beekeeping
The hive and the honey bee. Joe M. Winston, M. The biology of the honey bee. Harvard University Press.
A beehive is an enclosed structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Though the word beehive is commonly used to describe the nest of any bee colony, scientific and professional literature distinguishes nest from hive. Nest is used to discuss colonies that house themselves in natural or artificial cavities or are hanging and exposed. Several species of Apis live in colonies, but for honey production the western honey bee Apis mellifera and the eastern honey bee Apis cerana are the main species kept in hives. The nest's internal structure is a densely packed group of hexagonal prismatic cells made of beeswax , called a honeycomb.
Консьерж покачал головой: - Невозможно. Быть может, вы оставите… - Всего на одну минуту. Она в столовой. Консьерж снова покачал головой: - Ресторан закрылся полчаса .
Колдун, - пробурчал он себе под нос. - Ну и публика собирается там каждый вечер. ГЛАВА 53 Токуген Нуматака лежал на массажном столе в своем кабинете на верхнем этаже. Личная массажистка разминала затекшие мышцы его шеи.
Во рту у него был фонарик в виде авторучки, в руке - паяльник, а на животе лежала большая схема компьютера. Он только что установил новый комплект аттенюаторов на неисправную материнскую плату, когда внезапно ожил его мобильный.
The Hive And The Honey-Bee
Наверное, Испания напомнила мне о том, что по-настоящему важно. - Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку. - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью. - Рукописью. - Да.
Росио уверенно, по-хозяйски вошла в спальню. - Чем могу помочь? - спросила она на гортанном английском. Беккер не мигая смотрел на эту восхитительную женщину. - Мне нужно кольцо, - холодно сказал. - Кто вы такой? - потребовала .
Разумеется, это кличка. - Да, но я на всякий случай заглянул в Интернет, запустив поиск по этим словам. Я не надеялся что-либо найти, но наткнулся на учетную запись абонента. - Он выдержал паузу. - Я, конечно, предположил, что это не та Северная Дакота, которую мы ищем, но на всякий случай проверил эту запись.
За восемь часов след остыл. Какого черта я здесь делаю. Я должен был сейчас отдыхать в Смоуки-Маунтинс. Он вздохнул и задал единственный вопрос, который пришел ему в голову; - Как выглядит эта девушка. - Era un punqui, - ответила Росио.
- В них постоянно упоминается Цифровая крепость и его планы шантажа АНБ. Сьюзан отнеслась к словам Стратмора скептически. Ее удивило, что он так легко клюнул на эту приманку. - Коммандер, - возразила она, - Танкадо отлично понимал, что АНБ может найти его переписку в Интернете, он никогда не стал бы доверять секреты электронной почте. Это ловушка. Энсей Танкадо всучил вам Северную Дакоту, так как он знал, что вы начнете искать. Что бы ни содержалось в его посланиях, он хотел, чтобы вы их нашли, - это ложный след.
Echo un poco de Smirnoff? - настаивал бармен. - Плеснуть чуточку водки. - No, gracias. - Gratis? - по-прежнему увещевал бармен.
Росио - одно из самых популярных женских имен в Испании. В нем заключено все, что ассоциируется с представлением о молодой католичке: чистота, невинность, природная красота. Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы. В ушах зазвучал голос старого канадца. Капля Росы.