File Name: comparison of the old earth and young earth creationist models .zip
At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Christians, Jews, and Muslims are all Creationists in this sense.
- Creationism and Anti-Creationism in the United States
- Christian Views of Creation
- Young Earth creationism
A comparison of these views is shown in the table.
We at BioLogos share their concern for the gospel and their desire to see people in right relationship with God, but in our opinion the real danger lies in holding too tightly to one specific view of Genesis, not in any scientific claims about millions and billions of years. Our goal is to provide a constructive alternative to this unhelpful message. Young , was a very conservative Presbyterian biblical scholar.
Creationism and Anti-Creationism in the United States
At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will.
Christians, Jews, and Muslims are all Creationists in this sense. The focus of this discussion is on a narrower sense of Creationism, the sense that one usually finds in popular writings especially in America today, but expanding world-wide rapidly.
Here, Creationism means the taking of the Bible, particularly the early chapters of Genesis, as literally true guides to the history of the universe and to the history of life, including us humans, down here on earth Numbers Creationism in this more restricted sense entails a number of beliefs.
These include, first, that a short time has elapsed since the beginning of everything. Third, that there was a miraculous creation of all life including Homo sapiens — with scope for debate about whether Adam and Eve came together or if Eve came afterwards to keep Adam company. Fourth, that there was a world-wide flood some time after the initial creation, through which only a limited number of humans and animals survived.
Creationists in this narrow sense have variously been known as Fundamentalists or biblical literalists, and sometimes — especially when they are pushing the scientific grounds for their beliefs — as Scientific Creationists. Because the relationship between Creationism in the sense of literalism and Intelligent Design is somewhat complex, examination of this relationship will be left until later and, until stated otherwise, the following discussion focusses on literalists.
With significant provisos to be noted below, Creationists are strongly opposed to a world created by evolution, particularly to a world as described by Charles Darwin in his Origin of Species. Creationists present themselves as the true bearers and present-day representatives of authentic, traditional Christianity, but historically speaking this is simply not true Ruse ed. The Bible has a major place in the life of any Christian, but it is not the case that the Bible taken literally has always had a major place in the lives or theology of Christians.
For most, indeed, it has not Turner Although, one should remember that most literalists are better known as inerrantists, because they often differ on the meaning of a literal reading!
Tradition, the teachings and authority of the church, has always had main status for Catholics, and natural religion — approaching God through reason and argument — has long had an honored place for both Catholics and Protestants. Catholics, especially dating back to Saint Augustine around AD, and even to earlier thinkers like Origen, have always recognized that at times the Bible needs to be taken metaphorically or allegorically.
Augustine was particularly sensitive to this need, because for many years as a young man he was a Manichean and hence denied the authenticity and relevance of the Old Testament for salvation. When he became a Christian he knew full well the problems of Genesis and hence was eager to help his fellow believers from getting ensnared in the traps of literalism. It was not until the Protestant Reformation that the Bible started to take on its unique central position, as the great Reformers — especially Luther and Calvin — stressed the need to go by scripture alone and not by what they took to be the overly rich traditions of the Catholic Church.
But even they were doubtful about totally literalistic readings. For Luther, justification by faith was the keystone of his theology, and yet the Epistle of Saint James seems to put greater stress on the need for good works. Calvin likewise spoke of the need for God to accommodate His writings to the untutored public — especially the ancient Jews — and hence of the dangers of taking the Bible too literally in an uncritical sense. It was after the religious revivals of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century in Britain and America — revivals that led to such sects as the Methodists — that a more full-blooded literalism became a major part of the religious scene.
In America particularly literalism took hold, and especially after the Civil War, it took root in the evangelical sects — especially Baptists — of the South Numbers ; Noll It became part of the defining culture of the South, having as we shall see below as much a role in opposing ideas and influences of the leaders and policy makers of the North as anything rooted in deeply thought-through theology.
Many — especially working and lower-middle-class people — living in the large cities of the North felt deeply threatened by the moves to industrialism, the weakening of traditional beliefs, and the large influx of immigrants from Europe. They provided very fertile material for the literalist preachers.
See the extended discussions of these happenings in Ruse Thanks to a number of factors, Creationism started to grow dramatically in the early part of the twentieth century. First, there were the first systematic attempts to work out a position that would take account of modern science as well as just a literal reading of Genesis. Particularly important in this respect were the Seventh-day Adventists, especially the Canadian-born George McCready Price, who had theological reasons for wanting literalism, not the least being the belief that the Seventh Day — the day of rest — is literally twenty-four hours in length.
Also important for the Adventists and for fellow travelers, that is people who think that Armageddon is on its way, is the balancing and complementary early phenomenon of a world-wide flood. This, as we shall see, was to become a major theme in twentieth-century Cold War times. Second, there was the released energy of evangelicals referring generically to Protestants whose faith was tied to the Bible, taken rather literally as they succeeded in their attempts to prohibit liquor in the United States.
Flushed from one victory, they looked for other fields to conquer. Third there was the spread of public education, and more children being exposed to evolutionary ideas, bringing on a Creationist reaction.
Fourth, there were new evangelical currents afloat, especially the tracts the Fundamentals — a series of evangelical publications, conceived in by California businessman Lyman Stewart, the founder of Union Oil and a devout Presbyterian — that gave the literalist movement its name. And fifth, there was the identification of evolution — Darwinism particularly — with the militaristic aspects of Social Darwinism, especially the Social Darwinism supposed embraced by the Germans in the First World War Larson ; Ruse a.
Matters descended to the farcical when, denied the opportunity to introduce his own science witnesses, Darrow put on the stand the prosecutor Bryan. This conviction was overturned on a technicality on appeal, but there were no more prosecutions, even though the Tennessee law remained on the books for another forty years.
In the s, the Scopes trial became the basis of a famous play and then movie, Inherit the Wind. In fact, Bryan in respects was an odd figure to be defending the Tennessee law.
He thought that the days of Creation are long periods of time, and he had little sympathy for eschatological speculations about Armageddon and so forth.
It is quite possible that, humans apart, he accepted some form of evolution. His objections to Darwinism were more social than theological. The First World War, with many justifying violence in the name of evolutionary biology, confirmed his suspicions.
It is generally agreed that Inherit the Wind is using history as a vehicle to explore and condemn McCarthy-like attacks on uncomfortably new or dissenting-type figures in American society. After the Scopes Trial, general agreement is that the Creationism movement had peaked and declined quite dramatically and quickly.
Yet, it and related anti-evolution activity did have its lasting effects. Text-book manufacturers increasingly took evolution — Darwinism especially — out of their books, so that schoolchildren got less and less exposure to the ideas anyway. Whatever battles the evolutionists may have thought they had won in the court of popular opinion, in the trenches of the classroom they were losing the war badly.
Things started to move again in the late s. It was then that, thanks to Sputnik, the Russians so effectively demonstrated their superiority in rocketry with its implications for the arms race of the Cold War , and America realized with a shudder how ineffective was its science training of its young. Characteristically, the country did something immediate and effective about this, namely pouring money into the production of new science texts.
In this way, with class adoption, the Federal Government could have a strong impact and yet get around the problem that education tends to be under the tight control of individual states. The new biology texts gave full scope to evolution — to Darwinism — and with this the Creationism controversy again flared right up.
Children were learning these dreadful doctrines in schools, and something had to be done Ruse ed. Fortunately for the literalist, help was at hand. A biblical scholar, John C. Whitcomb, and a hydraulic engineer, Henry M. Following in the tradition of earlier writers, especially those from Seventh-day Adventism, they argued that every bit of the Biblical story of creation given in the early chapters of Genesis is supported fully by the best of modern science. Six days of twenty-four hours, organisms arriving miraculously, humans last, and sometime thereafter a massive world-wide flood that wiped most organisms off the face of the earth — or rather, dumped their carcasses in the mud as the waters receded.
At the same time, Whitcomb and Morris argued that the case for evolution fails dismally. They introduced or revived a number of arguments that have become standard parts of the Creationist repertoire against evolution. Let us look at a number of these arguments, together with the counter-arguments that evolutionists make in response. First, the Creationists argue that at best evolution is only a theory and not a fact, and that theories should never be taken as gospel if one might be permitted a metaphor.
They claim that the very language of evolutionists themselves show that their ideas are on shaky grounds. There is nothing iffy about the Copernican heliocentric theory. It is true. It is a fact. Evolutionists argue that the same is the case with evolution.
When talking about the theory of evolution, one is talking about a body of laws. In particular, if one is following the ideas of Charles Darwin, one is arguing that population pressures lead to a struggle for existence, this then entails a natural selection of favored forms, and evolution through shared descent is the end result.
This is a body of general statements about life, since the s given in a formal version using mathematics with deductive inferences between steps. In other words, we have a body of laws, and hence a theory in the first sense just given.
There is no implication here that the theory is iffy, that is in the second sense just given. We are not necessarily talking about something inherently unreliable. Of course, there are going to be additions and revisions, for instance the possibility of much greater hybridization than someone like Darwin realized, but that is another matter Quammen They reply: Those that survive!
Hence, natural selection reduces to the tautology that those that survive are those that survive. Not a real claim of science at all. To which evolutionists respond that this is a sleight of hand, showing ignorance of what is genuinely at stake. Some of our would-be ancestors lived and had babies and others did not. There was a differential reproduction. This is certainly not a mere truism.
It could be that everyone had the same number of children. It could also be that there is no difference overall between the successful and the unsuccessful.
This too is denied by natural selection. To say that something is the fitter or fittest is to say that it has certain characteristics what biologists call adaptations that other organisms do not have, and that on average one expects the fitter to succeed. But there is no guarantee that this must be so or that it will always happen. An earthquake could wipe out everyone, fit and unfit. Before discussing the third argument Creationists level against evolution, it is worth pausing over this second one.
Most if not all professional evolutionists argue that sometimes natural selection is not a significant causal factor. In this sense, it is false that selection is something that by definition is and always is the reason for lasting change. The fittest do not always win. It cannot be a tautology. Although, at first, this was embraced enthusiastically Dobzhansky , it soon became clear that at the gross physical phenotypic level it is at most minor Coyne, Barton, and Turelli However at the level of the gene genotype , it is still thought very important.
Christian Views of Creation
Young Earth creationism (YEC) is a form of creationism which holds as a central tenet that the An Earth that was thousands of years old remained the dominant view during the Early in the U.S. include the abundance of fundamentalist Christians compared to Europe. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July
Young Earth creationism
No geologic difficulties, real or imagined, can be allowed to take precedence over the clear statements and necessary inferences of Scripture. There is not the slightest possibility that the 'facts' of science can contradict the Bible. The only way we can know, for certain, the age of the earth, is for God who was there! And this He has done!
Don't have an account? In this chapter, the author examines intelligent design ID in the context of the legal history of disputes about evolution in US public education. He then considers the differences between ID and young-Earth creationism with respect to Genesis, Noah's flood, or the age of the Earth. The superficial sophistication of ID arguments, coupled with its lack of overt religiosity, has persuaded some that ID should not be considered creationism at all.
Nor do they refer primarily to scientists who study the world as scientists.
A Daily Lectionary for Lent
В международном аэропорту Далласа девушку встретил шофер АНБ, доставивший ее в Форт-Мид. В тот год аналогичное приглашение получили еще сорок кандидатов. Двадцативосьмилетняя Сьюзан оказалась среди них младшей и к тому же единственной женщиной. Визит вылился в сплошной пиар и бесчисленные интеллектуальные тесты при минимуме информации по существу дела. Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили .
И вдруг Сьюзан увидела, что кнопка вызова вовсе не мертва, а просто покрыта слоем черной сажи. Она вдруг начала светиться под кончиком пальца. Электричество. Окрыленная надеждой, Сьюзан нажала на кнопку. И опять за дверью что-то как будто включилось. Она услышала, что в кабине работает вентиляция.
ГЛАВА 28 Сеньор Ролдан восседал за своим столом в агентстве сопровождения Белена, чрезвычайно довольный тем, как умело обошел глупую полицейскую ловушку. Немецкий акцент и просьба снять девушку на ночь - это же очевидная подстава. Интересно, что они еще придумают. Телефон на столе громко зазвонил.
Черт возьми, - подумала Сьюзан. - Почему же так долго. - Ты явно не в себе, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл. - Какие-нибудь проблемы с диагностикой.
Но все же кто. Беккер держался своей легенды: - Я из севильской полиции. Росио угрожающе приблизилась. - Я знаю всех полицейских в этом городе.
Лейтенант глубоко затянулся.