Bike Engine Parts And Working Pdf

bike engine parts and working pdf

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Published: 07.06.2021

Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in there? A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and wires to the uninitiated. You might want to know what's going on simply out of curiosity.

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It looks confusing. It is confusing. Modern bike engines come with a lot of technology — sometimes you need a dictionary just to translate the manual.

What are the main parts of an engine?

Internal combustion engines come in a wide variety of types, but have certain family resemblances, and thus share many common types of components. Internal combustion engines can contain any number of combustion chambers cylinders , with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 Lycoming R have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses, that is, the mass of each piston can be less thus making a smoother-running engine since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down.

Doubling the number of the same size cylinders will double the torque and power. The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power.

For high-performance gasoline engines using current materials and technology, such as the engines found in modern automobiles, there seems to be a point around 10 or 12 cylinders after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency.

Although, exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist. The ignition system of an internal combustion engines depends on the type of engine and the fuel used. Petrol engines are typically ignited by a precisely timed spark, and diesel engines by compression heating. Historically, outside flame and hot-tube systems were used, see hot bulb engine.

In a spark ignition engine , a mixture is ignited by an electric spark from a spark plug — the timing of which is very precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type. Diesel engines timing is precisely controlled by the pressure pump and injector. The normal plug distance between the spark plug is 1mm apart, and the voltage is v at normal atmospheric conditions. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature.

In this case, the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity and light weight is more important than fuel costs use easily ignited fuels a mixture of kerosene, ether, and lubricant and adjustable compression to control ignition timing for starting and running. For reciprocating engines, the point in the cycle at which the fuel-oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE.

The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature, resulting from compression — near top dead center. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by the compression ratio , fuel mixture temperature, and octane rating or cetane number of the fuel.

Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly requiring more advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front deflagration , not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or Engine knocking. So at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between a later "retarded" spark — which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel — and an earlier "advanced" spark that avoids detonation with the fuel used.

For this reason, high-performance diesel automobile proponents, such as Gale Banks , believe that. In other words, it is the fuel, gasoline, that has become the limiting factor.

While turbocharging has been applied to both gasoline and diesel engines, only limited boost can be added to a gasoline engine before the fuel octane level again becomes a problem. With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart.

Consequently, engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine. Fuels burn faster and more efficiently when they present a large surface area to the oxygen in air.

Liquid fuels must be atomized to create a fuel-air mixture, traditionally this was done with a carburetor in petrol engines and with fuel injection in diesel engines. Most modern petrol engines now use fuel injection too — though the technology is quite different. While diesel must be injected at an exact point in that engine cycle, no such precision is needed in a petrol engine.

However, the lack of lubricity in petrol means that the injectors themselves must be more sophisticated. Simpler reciprocating engines continue to use a carburetor to supply fuel into the cylinder. Although carburetor technology in automobiles reached a very high degree of sophistication and precision, from the mids it lost out on cost and flexibility to fuel injection. Simple forms of carburetor remain in widespread use in small engines such as lawn mowers and more sophisticated forms are still used in small motorcycles.

Larger gasoline engines used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems see Gasoline Direct Injection. Diesel engines have always used fuel injection system because the timing of the injection initiates and controls the combustion. Autogas engines use either fuel injection systems or open- or closed-loop carburetors.

Most internal combustion engines now require a fuel pump. Diesel engines use an all-mechanical precision pump system that delivers a timed injection direct into the combustion chamber, hence requiring a high delivery pressure to overcome the pressure of the combustion chamber.

Petrol fuel injection delivers into the inlet tract at atmospheric pressure or below and timing is not involved, these pumps are normally driven electrically. Gas turbine and rocket engines use electrical systems. Some engines such as solid rockets have oxidisers already within the combustion chamber but in most cases for combustion to occur, a continuous supply of oxidiser must be supplied to the combustion chamber.

When air is used with piston engines it can simply suck it in as the piston increases the volume of the chamber. A supercharger is a " forced induction " system which uses a compressor powered by the shaft of the engine which forces air through the valves of the engine to achieve higher flow.

When these systems are employed the maximum absolute pressure at the inlet valve is typically around 2 times atmospheric pressure or more.

Turbochargers are another type of forced induction system which has its compressor powered by a gas turbine running off the exhaust gases from the engine. Turbochargers and superchargers are particularly useful at high altitudes and they are frequently used in aircraft engines. Duct jet engines use the same basic system, but eschew the piston engine, and replace it with a burner instead. In liquid rocket engines, the oxidiser comes in the form of a liquid and needs to be delivered at high pressure typically bar or 1—23 MPa to the combustion chamber.

This is normally achieved by the use of a centrifugal pump powered by a gas turbine — a configuration known as a turbopump , but it can also be pressure fed. For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft purple , connecting rod orange , one or more camshafts red and blue , and valves.

For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines there are one or more cylinders grey and green , and for each cylinder there is a spark plug darker-grey, gasoline engines only , a piston yellow , and a crankpin purple.

A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder where it is ignited is also known as a power stroke.

A Wankel engine has a triangular rotor that orbits in an epitrochoidal figure 8 shape chamber around an eccentric shaft. The four phases of operation intake, compression, power, and exhaust take place in what is effectively a moving, variable-volume chamber. All four-stroke internal combustion engines employ valves to control the admittance of fuel and air into the combustion chamber. Two-stroke engines use ports in the cylinder bore, covered and uncovered by the piston, though there have been variations such as exhaust valves.

In piston engines, the valves are grouped into 'inlet valves' which admit the entrance of fuel and air and 'outlet valves' which allow the exhaust gases to escape. Each valve opens once per cycle and the ones that are subject to extreme accelerations are held closed by springs that are typically opened by rods running on a camshaft rotating with the engines' crankshaft.

Some valves feather to adjust the flow to control power or engine speed as well. Internal combustion engines have to effectively manage the exhaust of the cooled combustion gas from the engine. The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control both chemical and noise pollution.

In addition, for cyclic combustion engines the exhaust system is frequently tuned to improve emptying of the combustion chamber. The majority of exhausts also have systems to prevent heat from reaching places which would encounter damage from it such as heat-sensitive components, often referred to as Exhaust Heat Management. For jet propulsion internal combustion engines, the 'exhaust system' takes the form of a high velocity nozzle , which generates thrust for the engine and forms a collimated jet of gas that gives the engine its name.

Combustion generates a great deal of heat, and some of this transfers to the walls of the engine. Failure will occur if the body of the engine is allowed to reach too high a temperature; either the engine will physically fail, or any lubricants used will degrade to the point that they no longer protect the engine. The lubricants must be clean as dirty lubricants may lead to over formation of sludge in the engines. Cooling systems usually employ air air-cooled or liquid usually water cooling, while some very hot engines using radiative cooling especially some rocket engines.

Some high-altitude rocket engines use ablative cooling, where the walls gradually erode in a controlled fashion. Rockets in particular can use regenerative cooling , which uses the fuel to cool the solid parts of the engine. A piston is a component of reciprocating engines. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In two-stroke engines the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

For jet engine forms of internal combustion engines, a propelling nozzle is present. This takes the high temperature, high pressure exhaust and expands and cools it. The exhaust leaves the nozzle going at much higher speed and provides thrust, as well as constricting the flow from the engine and raising the pressure in the rest of the engine, giving greater thrust for the exhaust mass that exits.

Most reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be converted into rotation. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft. The flywheel is a disk or wheel attached to the crank, forming an inertial mass that stores rotational energy. In engines with only a single cylinder the flywheel is essential to carry energy over from the power stroke into a subsequent compression stroke.

Flywheels are present in most reciprocating engines to smooth out the power delivery over each rotation of the crank and in most automotive engines also mount a gear ring for a starter. The rotational inertia of the flywheel also allows a much slower minimum unloaded speed and also improves the smoothness at idle. The flywheel may also perform a part of the balancing of the system and so by itself be out of balance, although most engines will use a neutral balance for the flywheel, enabling it to be balanced in a separate operation.

The flywheel is also used as a mounting for the clutch or a torque converter in most automotive applications. All internal combustion engines require some form of system to get them into operation.

Most piston engines use a starter motor powered by the same battery as runs the rest of the electric systems. Large jet engines and gas turbines are started with a compressed air motor that is geared to one of the engine's driveshafts. Compressed air can be supplied from another engine, a unit on the ground or by the aircraft's APU.

Small internal combustion engines are often started by pull cords. Motorcycles of all sizes were traditionally kick-started, though all but the smallest are now electric-start.

How Car Engines Work

In order to fully understand how the latest in speed parts work, you first need to understand how an engine works. Most cars as we know them are powered by what is called a 4-stroke engine. A 4-stroke refers to the four strokes in the power cycle; the intake stroke, the compression stroke, the power stroke and the exhaust stroke. For now, what you need to know is that the 4-stroke cycle explains how a mixture of gasoline and air can be ignited, combusted and smoothly converted into useable power to hurl you down the quarter mile, around a track or just take you to work. An engine is composed of several major components; the block , the crank , the rods , the pistons , the head or heads , the valves , the cams , the intake and exhaust systems and the ignition system.

6. Components of a two-stroke engine and their functions. 7. Steps in the operation of a four-stroke engine. 8. Steps in the operation of a two-stroke engine​. 9.

How Does a Two-Stroke Engine Work? [With Animation & PDF]

A four-stroke engine is an Internal combustion engine , where four successive strokes i. Suction-Compression-Power-Exhaust completes in two revolutions of the crankshaft. Therefore, the engine is called a Four-stroke engine. In recent days the majority of automobile runs on a four-stroke cycle. Basic some terms used in this article:.

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Also at the end of the article I will give you PDF downloadable link. It is one type of internal combustion engine that complete two-stroke up-stroke and down-stroke in one revolution of the crankshaft. I will describe up-stroke and down-stroke later on in the following article. There are two types of two-stroke engines are in the market. One is the 2-stroke petrol engine which runs on the Otto cycle and another one is 2-stroke diesel engine which runs on diesel cycle.

What is a 4-stroke engine? [With PDF & Animation]

Internal combustion engines come in a wide variety of types, but have certain family resemblances, and thus share many common types of components. Internal combustion engines can contain any number of combustion chambers cylinders , with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 Lycoming R have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses, that is, the mass of each piston can be less thus making a smoother-running engine since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down.

Так появился апельсиновый мармелад. Халохот пробирался между деревьями с пистолетом в руке. Деревья были очень старыми, с высокими голыми стволами. Даже до нижних веток было не достать, а за неширокими стволами невозможно спрятаться.

ANON. ORG У человека, назвавшегося Северной Дакотой, анонимные учетные данные, но Сьюзан знала, что это ненадолго. Следопыт проникнет в ARA, отыщет Северную Дакоту и сообщит истинный адрес этого человека в Интернете. Если все сложится нормально, она скоро выяснит местонахождение Северной Дакоты, и Стратмор конфискует ключ. Тогда дело будет только за Дэвидом. Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора. Сьюзан еще раз прочитала адрес на клочке бумаги и ввела информацию в соответствующее поле, посмеялась про себя, вспомнив о трудностях, с которыми столкнулся Стратмор, пытаясь самолично запустить Следопыта.

4-Stroke Engines: What Are They and How Do They Work?

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