Mutation And Its Types Pdf

mutation and its types pdf

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Mutations Definition.

In biology , a mutation is an alteration in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism , virus , or extrachromosomal DNA. Mutations result from errors during DNA or viral replication , mitosis , or meiosis or other types of damage to DNA such as pyrimidine dimers caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation , which then may undergo error-prone repair especially microhomology-mediated end joining [2] , cause an error during other forms of repair, [3] [4] or cause an error during replication translesion synthesis. Mutations may also result from insertion or deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce detectable changes in the observable characteristics phenotype of an organism.

References

Mutation in the DNA of a body cell of a multicellular organism somatic mutation may be transmitted to descendant cells by DNA replication and hence result in a sector or patch of cells having abnormal function, an example being cancer. Mutations in egg or sperm cells germinal mutations may result in an individual offspring all of whose cells carry the mutation, which often confers some serious malfunction, as in the case of a human genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis. Mutations result either from accidents during the normal chemical transactions of DNA, often during replication, or from exposure to high-energy electromagnetic radiation e. Because mutations are random changes, they are expected to be mostly deleterious , but some may be beneficial in certain environments. In general, mutation is the main source of genetic variation , which is the raw material for evolution by natural selection.

The DNA sequence of a gene can be altered in a number of ways. Gene mutations have varying effects on health, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. The types of mutations include:. Missense mutation: This type of mutation is a change in one DNA base pair that results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein made by a gene. Nonsense mutation: A nonsense mutation is also a change in one DNA base pair. Instead of substituting one amino acid for another, however, the altered DNA sequence prematurely signals the cell to stop building a protein.

In a simple language, we can say, a change occurs in a number or structure of a gene or a chromosome is referred to as a genetic mutation. The basic unit of life is a cell. A cell- a microscopic structure present in every organism. It has an even tinier nucleus in its center. Mostly DNA as nucleic acid present in almost every organism and made up of the long chain of nucleotides- a polynucleotide chain. Nitrogenous bases- A, T, G and C are the main units of nucleotides besides the sugar and phosphate.

Mutation and Transformation

Mutations are abnormal changes in the DNA of a gene. The building blocks of DNA are called bases. The sequence of the bases determines the gene and its function. Mutations involve changes in the arrangement of the bases that make up a gene. Even a change in just one base among the thousands of bases that make up a gene can have a major effect. A gene mutation can affect the cell in many ways.


An example of a human chromosomal alteration is the mutation that causes Down Syndrome. It is a duplication mutation that leads to developmental delays and.


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DNA Mutation and Repair. Damaged DNA can be mutated either by substitution, deletion or insertion of base pairs. Mutations, for the most part, are harmless except when they lead to cell death or tumor formation.

This rare albino alligator must have the specific "instructions," or DNA, to have this quality. The cause of albinism is a mutation in a gene for melanin, a protein found in skin and eyes. Such a mutation may result in no melanin production at all or a significant decline in the amount of melanin. Does the word mutation make you think of science fiction and bug-eyed monsters?

Мы обыскали обоих. Осмотрели карманы, одежду, бумажники. Ничего похожего. У Халохота был компьютер Монокль, мы и его проверили.

В нем заключено все, что ассоциируется с представлением о молодой католичке: чистота, невинность, природная красота. Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы.

Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность. Хейл извивался на полу, стараясь увидеть, чем занята Сьюзан. - Что. Скажи .

Его концепция была столь же проста, сколь и гениальна. Она состояла из легких в использовании программ для домашнего компьютера, которые зашифровывали электронные послания таким образом, что они становились абсолютно нечитаемыми. Пользователь писал письмо, пропускал его через специальную программу, и на другом конце линии адресат получал текст, на первый взгляд не поддающийся прочтению, - шифр. Тот же, кто перехватывал такое сообщение, видел на экране лишь маловразумительную абракадабру. Расшифровать сообщение можно было лишь введя специальный ключ - секретный набор знаков, действующий как ПИН-код в банкомате.

Новый стандарт шифрования приказал долго жить. Никому не показалось удивительным, что два дня спустя АНБ приняло Грега Хейла на работу. Стратмор решил, что лучше взять его к себе и заставить трудиться на благо АНБ, чем позволить противодействовать агентству извне. Стратмор мужественно перенес разразившийся скандал, горячо защищая свои действия перед конгрессом.

What kinds of gene mutations are possible?

3 COMMENTS

VertГЎn M.

REPLY

There are various schemes for classification of different kind of mutations. Depending on: PDF. 3. chezchevaux.org

Jeanne C.

REPLY

Nucleotide repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated a number of times in a row. For example, a trinucleotide repeat is made up of 3-base-.

Passkirstorkdurs

REPLY

The DNA sequence of a gene can be altered in a number of ways.

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