File Name: empirical evaluation of information security planning and integration randall.zip
- Empirical Assessment of the Quality of Nationalities
- Univ.-Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
- Human Resource Planning
- Planning as Scholarship: Origins and Prospects
Empirical Assessment of the Quality of Nationalities
Jump to navigation. The Brief provides a general overview of DV risk assessment including the purpose of conducting risk assessments, tools, best practices, how risk assessment informs risk management and safety planning, and risk assessment with populations that experience increased vulnerability to domestic homicide i. Suggested Citation: Campbell, M. Domestic Homicide Brief 2. ISBN Please evaluate!
In the domestic violence field, there has yet to be a consensus on an operational definition of risk. In research, risk is often defined as the likelihood that violence will occur in the future. The primary purpose of conducting domestic violence risk assessment is to prevent violence; that is, to identify and mitigate risks posed by the perpetrator.
Thus, risk assessment helps to prioritize cases for intervention i. Risk assessment can also help identify monitoring and supervision strategies i. A secondary purpose of domestic violence risk assessment is to improve the accountability, transparency and consistency of decision-making. Professionals in the domestic violence field have been conducting risk assessments for decades often basing their assessments on experience and intuition.
This informal approach, referred to as unstructured clinical decision making, can capture the unique factors associated with an individual case leading to case-specific tailoring of violence prevention strategies. However, it has been criticized as being highly subjective and lacking reliability, validity, and accountability. Unstructured clinical decision making may also miss important factors found in research that inform appropriate and effective interventions.
Furthermore, this approach allows for personal preferences, biases, and specific specialized trainings of the professional to influence intervention and prevention strategies rather than relying on empirically studied risk factors and strategies widely accepted and used in the field.
There are two structured approaches to risk assessment utilized in the domestic violence field: 1 actuarial assessment and 2 structured professional judgment approach. An actuarial tool is distinguished from other assessment methods by how the items are selected, combined, and interpreted, rather than which items are used or whether they are measured at one point i. It also provides an estimate of the probability of reoffending according to a specified outcome and time frame based on follow-up research with a large number of individuals.
Structured Professional Judgment SPJ The structured professional judgment approach to risk assessment involves assessing risk according to guidelines that reflect theoretical, professional, and evidence-based knowledge about domestic violence.
The guidelines include the minimum number of risk factors that must be considered for each case; recommendations for gathering information that will be needed for the assessment e. Any risk assessment needs to be considered through the lens of the unique vulnerabilities of each victim. Subsequently, she needs to be advised of relevant information from risk management plans. Note: The DA is a commonly used tool to assess the risk of homicide in domestic violence situations as it bases the assessment on risk factors found in case control research to be associated with lethality or more severe domestic violence.
Predictive validity measures the accuracy of a risk assessment in discriminating at a particular point the effectiveness of a risk assessment tool in identifying potential recidivists.
This inconsistency in methodology makes it difficult to accurately measure the predictive validity of risk assessment tools. While predictive validity is an important factor when choosing which tool to use for assessing risk for domestic violence, other factors should also be considered. For instance, additional costs of training and materials, ease of use, the particular setting the tool is intended for e. Risk assessment is not an end in itself but rather an ongoing process that informs risk management and safety planning.
However, current research focuses on the predictive validity of tools and not how risk assessment can prevent violence by providing information that leads to appropriate and effective risk management and safety planning strategies. There is a need for research to examine how the risk assessment process can prevent future domestic violence. For example, women who survived an attempted homicide by their intimate partner were interviewed and asked if they felt that their lives were in danger.
The program provides short-term interventions to victims immediately following a police-reported incident of domestic violence. The short-term interventions involve follow-up by community based anti violence program staff, other social workers or police where victims are informed of their level of risk for subsequent victimization; assist in developing an immediate safety plan; are provided with information on services, legal options, and court orders; and are given referrals and access to therapeutic support.
Recently, researchers and service providers have implemented a second-responder program, based on a risk, needs, and responsivity RNR framework, with perpetrators of domestic violence who have been assessed as either moderate to high-risk for reoffending. Specifically, the program offers immediate interventions to perpetrators who have been released on bail and awaiting trial. While awaiting trial, perpetrators would see a counsellor who would provide them with links to community resources e.
An evaluation of the program revealed that perpetrators who participated in the second-responder program were significantly less likely to be arrested for another offense two years after the interventions compared to perpetrators who did not participate in the program. Specifically, the rates of re-arrest and arrest for domestic-violence-related offenses were twice as high for perpetrators who did not participate in the program compared to perpetrators who did participate.
An ICAT is a team comprised of local agencies who respond to high risk domestic violence e. The team responds to referrals of potentially high risk cases in order to manage the risk and increase safety. Information regarding the family is gathered by all service providers who know either the victim, the perpetrator, or both. The information is appropriately shared to identify risk and vulnerability factors and to assess the level of risk to inform a risk management strategy.
The risk review decision is communicated by standardized mechanism to courts and risk management plans are recorded by relevant agencies using agreed upon records management guidelines. The team also identifies other vulnerabilities for the family and others, and manages the case until it is no longer considered highest risk. Safety planning goes above and beyond providing generic strategies to protect the victim and her children.
Furthermore, most of the research on predictive validity of domestic violence risk assessment tools has been conducted in North America and applied to the majority culture or population. Concern has been raised about the application of risk assessment tools and psychological assessment instruments to specific populations when they were developed on mixed populations.
In a case,20 it was successfully argued that this concern was sufficient to place a moratorium on the use of some assessments not specialized domestic violence assessments for offenders of Indigenous heritage in Correctional Services Canada. However, this decision was not supported in There has been no comparable research in domestic violence risk assessment, although in one study no difference was found between the predictive accuracy of the ODARA for Indigenous versus non-Indigenous offenders.
There has been limited research in the development and use of culturally competent risk assessment tools and it has been recommended that empirically validated risk assessment tools for diverse populations be developed.
A study on the predictive validity of the DA-R indicated that the tool can accurately predict the risk of re-assault in abusive female same-sex intimate relationships. The Walking the Path Together Danger Assessment is designed in a circle which represents the unending cycle of life and contains standard teachings for all Indigenous cultures.
Specifically, the calendar portion of the DA takes the form of a circle divided into four sections with each section representing one of the four seasons in the year. The questions in the DA were also revised to reflect the unique situations of life on reserve.
The tool is comprised of 15 factors 10 risk factors and five victim vulnerability factors identified in the literature and in consultation with experts in the field. Currently there is a paucity of research and understanding in assessing risk for children exposed to domestic violence. One study used data from the Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee to examine the effectiveness of three commonly used domestic violence risk assessment tools i.
In a study using data from fathers with a police record of domestic violence, the ODARA score was higher among men who also assaulted their children. Intimate partner violence risk assessment and management. Violence and Victims, 23 2 , A brief actuarial assessment for the prediction of wife assault recidivism: The Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment.
Psychological Assessment, 16, Hare Psychopathy Checklist — Revised 2nd ed. Empirically examining the risk of intimate partner violence: The revised domestic violence screening instrument DVSI-R. Public Health Reports, 4 , Predicting family violence recidivism using the DVSI-R: Integrating survival analysis and perpetrator characteristics.
Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41 2 , The average predictive validity of intimate partner violence risk assessment instruments. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28 7 , Risk assessment in intimate partner violence: A systematic review of contemporary approaches. Partner Abuse, 4 1 , A prevention-based paradigm for violence risk assessment. Clinical and research applications. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 29 5 , Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19 7 , Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15 1 , Could we have known?
A qualitative analysis of data from women who survived an attempted homicide by an intimate partner. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18 10 , Intervening to prevent repeat offending among moderate- to high-risk domestic violence offenders: A second-responder program for men.
Safety planning based on lethality assessment for partners of batterers in intervention programs. Presented at the 77th annual Canadian Psychological Association convention. Victoria, BC. Risk assessment among male incarcerated domestic offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, Culturally competent intimate partner violence risk assessment: Adapting the danger assessment for immigrant women. Social Work Research, 37 3 , Risk for reassault in abusive female same-sex relationships.
American Journal of Public Health, 98 6 , AB: Author. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 14 1 , Effectiveness of risk assessment tools in differentiating child homicides from other domestic homicide cases. Journal of Child Custody, 10 2 , Identifying risk of co-occurring child abuse among domestic violence offenders.
Why Do Risk Assessment? The Nature and Kind of Risk Assessment Tools Professionals in the domestic violence field have been conducting risk assessments for decades often basing their assessments on experience and intuition.
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf
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Empirical Evaluation of Information Security Planning and Integration. Randall F. Young. University of Texas–Pan American. [email protected] John Windsor.
Human Resource Planning
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This article discusses the origins and prospects of urban planning as a scholarship. Urban planning is a relatively young academic discipline and, despite its storied genes, lacks an extensive, established canon on which to rest its laurels. It also has a conflicted status in the academy with its dual nature as both craft and intellectual field.
Planning as Scholarship: Origins and Prospects
Jump to navigation. The Brief provides a general overview of DV risk assessment including the purpose of conducting risk assessments, tools, best practices, how risk assessment informs risk management and safety planning, and risk assessment with populations that experience increased vulnerability to domestic homicide i. Suggested Citation: Campbell, M. Domestic Homicide Brief 2. ISBN
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Empirical evaluation of information security planning and integration. RF Young, J Windsor. Communications of the Association for Information Systems 26 (1).
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