File Name: an introduction to literary and cultural theory peter barry .zip
This non-fiction and quasi-historical text provides an introduction to more than a dozen literary and cultural theories from liberal humanism to twentieth century ecocriticism.
- Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
- Beginning Theory. Peter Barry. an Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
- Beginning theory: An introduction to literary and cultural theory
- Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
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If you already know something, and still look for a book to help you understand theory, get separate books for every kind of theory e. This new and expanded third edition continues to offer students and readers the best one-volume introduction to the field. Peter Barry allows readers to develop their own ideas once first principles and concepts have been grasped.
Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
By Peter Barry. The books in the series. Each aims to lay a firm foundation of well understood initial principles as a basis for further study and is committed to explaining new aspects of the discipline without over-simplification, but in a manner appropriate to the needs of beginners. Each book, finally, aims to be both an introduction and a contribution to the topic area it discusses. The right of Peter Barry to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act The publisher has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for any external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
A brief historical account: from rhetoric, to philology, to linguistics, to stylistics, to new stylistics. Those words have opened this book from the start, and I haven't the heart to remove them now, when they are more applicable than ever.
I am equally grateful to my students at those places, who taught me how to teach, as good students do, and, more especially, how to teach theory.
Over the years, many students and lecturers have emailed with informative, instructive, corrective, appreciative, and amusing comments about the book, and I hope they will continue to do so: I can be contacted at ptb aber. Special thanks are due to my editor, Matthew Frost, at Manchester University Press, and to Andrew Kirk for his expert proofreading of the fourth edition.
The problem is that none of them work. A new edition is another chance to fail better at teaching literary theory. It is nearly a quarter of a century since this book first appeared, and my own views on theory have, of course, shifted in that period. I am especially aware of an accelerated shift since the early s. For much of this period I taught a session at the annual Literary Theory Day at Rewley House, Oxford, applying three or four theories to a different short literary text each year.
My feelings about theorised readings of literary texts remind me now of watching the pre-millennial eclipse at Southsea in Hampshire with eight-year-old Tom in I kept thinking that theory often eclipses the text, just as the moon's shadow obscures the sun in an eclipse, so that the text loses its own voice and begins to voice theory.
Thus, the text is proved by theory to be riddled with deconstructive cul-de-sacs see Chapter 3 , or an enactment of the Oedipus Complex Chapter 5 , or an embodiment of Althusserian repressive structures Chapter 8. That's how it was, at least, when theory was at its zenith during the s and s. When the literary text met the cutting edge of theory, it got turned over by the blade, like a ploughed field. The outcome of all these encounters was the same — it was an endless parade of triumphant theoretical mastery.
In the final stanza, the poet urges the ploughman to drive on regardless, ignoring the wildlife which may be harmed by the blade of the plough:. Ideas begin in a mist, in a place where we cannot be sure what we are getting into.
So I began saying that when theory meets text, we are not looking for a confident re-shaping of the literary text with the blade of theory, but for a more tentative and patient groping about in the mist — an acceptance, in other words, of how uncertain the outcome usually is when theory meets text. This thought, which took me several years to formulate to think, even , felt liberating and revolutionary, and after it, everything was different.
For me this was where Theory 1. One characteristic of the world of Theory 2. On the contrary, texts often have energies that run in all sorts of directions, crossing and contradicting and arguing with themselves. All that messy, sticky particularity is what makes it literature. It's the same with theories: what makes them interesting is not their magisterial certainty and consistency, but their blind spots, the corners they cut, their blurry edges, and their constant, and often conflicting, reformulations.
These are the attributes that make them worth spending time on — reading them, thinking about them, arguing about them, talking back to them, and trying to make them into a practice of some kind.
What things? Well, the world we live in, the way we think about each other, the way we live both our collective and our individual lives. Increasingly, I value theories and approaches that have open intellectual borders, fewer over-adulated superstars, and ideas which do not have the effect of ironing literary texts into theory-compliant flatness.
In this book, that is the kind of approach I recommend and speak for. I believe that theory asks the right questions a huge achievement , and that, at its most useful, it wants to engage us, not in a conversion, but in a conversation. The high-water mark of literary theory occurred in the s. See also the books mentioned later at the start of Chapter There are evident dangers of over-simplifying things and so offering a false reassurance to students facing the difficulties of this topic for the first time.
All the same, the main responsibility of anyone attempting a book like this one is to meet the demand for clear explanation and demonstration. If the task were impossible, and the mountain of theory could be climbed only by experts, then the whole enterprise of establishing it on undergraduate courses would have been a mistake.
You will not just be reading about it, reducing theory to a kind of spectator sport played only by superstars, but starting to do it for yourself. Becoming a participant in this way will help you to make some personal sense of theory, and will, I hope, increase your confidence, even if you suspect that your practical efforts remain fairly rudimentary.
All the critical approaches described in this book are a reaction against something which went before, and a prior knowledge of these things cannot be assumed. There is a problem concerning how to label the older ways of doing literary studies that were challenged in the s and s by the arrival on the scene of the theoretical developments described in this book. But the vagueness of descriptors like these is troubling, and it is never safe to assume that everyone understands such terms in the same way.
Classes and their tutors will want to challenge or supplement this list, of course, but I would be surprised if many believed that there is any untheorised way of studying literature. The currently successful versions of Marxist, feminist, psychoanalytic, and linguistic criticism also all define themselves against earlier versions of each of these, and therefore I try in each case to explain the earlier versions first. I think that many of the current difficulties students have with theory arise from trying to miss out this stage.
My approach amounts to throwing you in at the shallow end. Potentially this is more painful than being thrown in at the deep end — the technique used in most other student introductions to literary theory — but it does reduce the risk of drowning. It should, perhaps, be stressed that most of the other general introductions to theory that are now available are different from this one.
They offer an even and comprehensive coverage of the entire field, often with relatively little in the way of sustained practical discussion of applications. I find some of them very useful, but they seem to me to be recapitulations of literary theory, often from a viewpoint more philosophical than literary, rather than introductions to it. The evenness of the coverage means that the pace never varies, so that there is no opportunity to stop and dwell upon an example in a reflective way.
By contrast, I haven't tried to be comprehensive, and I do try to provide variation in pace by selecting questions, or examples, or key essays for closer treatment. At undergraduate level the main problem is to decide how much theory can reasonably be handled by beginners. Time is not unlimited, and there is a need to think about a realistic syllabus rather than an ideal one.
Theorists, like novelists, are dauntingly plentiful, and the subject of theory cannot succeed in lecture rooms and seminars unless we fashion it into a student-centred syllabus.
But Leavis's Great Tradition was essentially a syllabus, manageable within a year-long undergraduate course on the novel. It is possible to read and adequately discuss a novel or two by Austen, Eliot, James, Conrad, and Lawrence within that time. We need to make sure that what is presented as theory today makes sense as a sequence of learning and teaching. When we are about to move into something new it is sensible to first take stock of what we already have, if only so that the distance travelled can later be measured.
So in the first chapter of this book I invite you to look back critically and reflectively on your previous training in literary studies. Liberal humanists did not and do not, as a rule use this name of themselves, but, says an influential school of thought, if you practise literary criticism and do not call yourself a Marxist critic, or a structuralist, or a stylistician, or some such, then you are probably a liberal humanist, whether or not you admit or recognise this.
In the course of explaining some of the major critical ideas now current, this book provides summaries or descriptions of a number of important theoretical essays.
But I want to stress at the outset that it is important, too, that you read some of the major theorists at first hand. Yet as soon as you begin to turn the pages of Barthes, Butler, Foucault, or Derrida you will encounter writing which looks dauntingly difficult and off-putting. How, then, to cope? I suggest that it is much better to read intensely in theory than to read widely.
By this I mean that you will gain little from reading chapter after chapter of a book that is making little sense to you. You will gain much more by using the same amount of reading time to read one crucial and frequently mentioned chapter or article several times for yourself. Having a detailed knowledge of what is actually said in the pages of a well-known argument, being aware of how the argument unfolds and how it is qualified or contextualised, will be far more useful to you than a superficial overall impression gained from commentaries or from desperate skim-reading.
However daunting the material, you have to make your reading meditative, reflective, and personal. Try to become a slow reader. Further, some intensive reading of this kind will enable you to quote lines other than the handful that are cited in all the commentaries.
And most importantly, your view of things will be your own, perhaps quirky and incomplete, but at least not just the echo and residue of some published commentator's prepacked version.
In a nut-shell, intensive reading is often more useful than extensive reading. English studies is founded on the notion of close reading, and while there was a period in the late s and early s when this approach was frequently disparaged, it is undoubtedly true that nothing of any interest can happen in this subject without close reading. The five stages are:.
S — That is, Survey the whole chapter or section fairly rapidly, skimming through it to get a rough sense of the scope and nature of the argument. Remember that information is not evenly spread throughout a text.
Q — Having skimmed the whole, set yourself some Questions , some things you hope to find out from what you are reading. R1 — Now Read the whole piece. Use a pencil if the copy is your own to underline key points, query difficulties, circle phrases worth remembering, and so on. Don't just sit in front of the pages. If the book is not your own jot something down on paper as you read, however minimal.
R2 — Now, close the book and Recall what you have read. Jot down some summary points. Ask whether your starting questions have been answered, or at least clarified. Spell out some of the difficulties that remain. In this way, you record some concrete outcomes to your reading, so that your time doesn't simply evaporate uselessly once the book is closed. R3 — This final stage is the Review. It happens after an interval has elapsed since the reading. You can experiment, but initially try doing it the following day.
Without opening the book again, or referring back to your notes, review what you have gained from the reading; remind yourself of the question you set yourself, the points you jotted down at the Recall stage, and any important phrases from the essay. If this produces very little, then refer back to your notes. If they make little sense, then repeat the Survey stage, and do an accelerated Read , by reading the first and last paragraphs of the essay, and skim-reading the main body assisted by your pencilled markings.
Beginning Theory. Peter Barry. an Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
Literary theory is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for literary analysis. The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece Aristotle 's Poetics is an often cited early example , ancient India Bharata Muni 's Natya Shastra , ancient Rome Longinus 's On the Sublime and medieval Iraq Al-Jahiz 's al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan , and ibn al-Mu'tazz 's Kitab al-Badi. The theory and criticism of literature are tied to the history of literature. However, the modern sense of "literary theory" only dates to approximately the s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to strongly influence English language literary criticism. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late s when its influence was beginning to spread outward from universities such as Johns Hopkins , Yale , and Cornell through the s by which time it was taught nearly everywhere in some form.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Barry Published Philosophy. Introduction: about this book approaching theory stop and think - reviewing your study of literature to date. Part 1 Theory before "theory" - liberal humanism: the history of English studies ten tenets of liberal-humanism literary theorising from Aristotle to Leavis - some key moments liberal humanism in practice selected reading the transition to "theory" some recurrent ideas in critical theory. Save to Library. Create Alert.
Part 7 Lesbian/gay criticism: lesbian and gay theory lesbian feminism queer theory what lesbian/gay critics do lesbian/gay criticism Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory P. Barry; Published ; Philosophy.
Beginning theory: An introduction to literary and cultural theory
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 of 3 essay topics. According to the narrator in the Introduction, the term "liberal humanism" became current in what decade? What is the name of the early nineteenth-century American writer who received considerable attention from both structuralists and post-structuralists? In the Introduction, what university did author Peter Barry say he attended?
By Peter Barry. The books in the series. Each aims to lay a firm foundation of well understood initial principles as a basis for further study and is committed to explaining new aspects of the discipline without over-simplification, but in a manner appropriate to the needs of beginners. Each book, finally, aims to be both an introduction and a contribution to the topic area it discusses. The right of Peter Barry to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act
Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory
- Она не пошевелилась. - Когда я все закончу, я сообщу тебе код вызова лифта. И тогда ты решишь, уходить тебе или. Повисла долгая тишина.
Он никогда не думал, что четыре слова могут сделать его таким счастливым: IM GLAD WE MET Что означало: Я рада, что мы встретились. Он быстро нацарапал на программке ответ и протянул Сьюзан: LDSNN Сьюзан, прочитав, просияла. ME TOO, что означало: Я. Беккер расхохотался. Он дожил до тридцати пяти лет, а сердце у него прыгало, как у влюбленного мальчишки. Никогда еще его не влекло ни к одной женщине.
Если он примет на работу калеку, его компания потеряет лицо. Он выкинул его автобиографию в мусорную корзину, даже не прочитав. Нуматака в очередной раз посмотрел на часы. Американец по кличке Северная Дакота должен был бы уже позвонить. Нуматака начал слегка нервничать. Он очень надеялся, что ничего не сорвалось.
У нас чрезвычайная ситуация, и мне нужен этот список. Бринкерхофф положил руки ей на плечи. - Мидж, ну пожалуйста, успокойся. Ты знаешь, что я не могу… Она фыркнула и снова повернулась к клавиатуре. - Я распечатаю список. Войду, возьму его и тотчас выйду. Давай ключ.
Коммандер спас ей жизнь. Стоя в темноте, она испытывала чувство огромного облегчения, смешанного, конечно же, с ощущением вины: агенты безопасности приближаются. Она глупейшим образом попала в ловушку, расставленную Хейлом, и Хейл сумел использовать ее против Стратмора. Она понимала, что коммандер заплатил огромную цену за ее избавление. - Простите меня, - сказала .
Волоча Сьюзан за собой, он использовал ее как живой щит. Преодолев треть ступенек, он почувствовал какое-то движение у подножия лестницы. Стратмор что-то задумал. - И не пытайтесь, коммандер, - прошипел. - Вы рискуете попасть в Сьюзан. Хейл выжидал. Стояла полная тишина, и он внимательно прислушался.
Это невозможно! - рявкнул Нуматака. - Вы обещали, что они будут у меня сегодня до конца дня.
Никому не позволено действовать в обход фильтров. - Ошибаешься, - возразила. - Я только что говорила с Джаббой. Он сказал, что в прошлом году сам установил переключатель.