File Name: local government administration and rural development in nigeria .zip
- THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
- Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward
- Local government
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. The central aim or focus of this paper is to highlight the role of local government being the closest tier of government to the grassroots in rural development.
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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES
Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of administration that is both geographically-localised and has limited powers. While in some countries, "government" is normally reserved purely for a national administration government which may be known as a central government or federal government , the term local government is always used specifically in contrast to national government — as well as, in many cases, the activities of sub-national, first-level administrative divisions which are generally known by names such as cantons, provinces, states, or regions.
In federal states , local government generally comprises a third or fourth tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance. Local elections are held in many countries. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies.
Common designated names for local government entities include state , province , region , canton , department , county , prefecture , district , city , township , town , borough , parish , municipality , shire , village , ward , local service district and local government area. Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's highly centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates sing.
These were subdivided into districts sing. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively.
Governors were appointed by the president, and they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers. The coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman sing.
Before the revolution , state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, and the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government. The extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union ASU , fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Sadat and Mubarak.
The earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact.
The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, and the system of local government the mayor and council integrated them into the regime.
Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the provinces and towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of , which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces.
The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level.
Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, and local policies often reflected special local conditions.
Thus, officials in Upper Egypt often bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers.
In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, and rural community districts communes.
The state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, and it provides technical support, coordination, and legal recourse to these levels. Opportunities for direct political participation, and increased local responsibility for development have been improved.
In August—September , elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. With mayors, councils, and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, and donor groups began partnering to further development.
Eventually, the cercles will be reinstituted formerly grouping arrondissements with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen by and from members of the communal councils. The regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, and will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels, especially to mobilize and manage financial resources.
Nigeria as a federal republic operates three tiers of government: federal or central , states and local government. The country's constitution provides for each local government which exists in a single tier countrywide , and its development areas and autonomous communities created by individual state legislation to have democratically elected local government heads. There is a ministry or bureau of local government and chieftaincy affairs in each state charged with the responsibility of administration at that level.
South Africa has a two-tiered local government system comprising local municipalities which fall into district municipalities, and metropolitan municipalities which span both tiers of local government.
Afghanistan was traditionally divided into provinces governed by centrally appointed governors with considerable autonomy in local affairs. There are currently 34 provinces. During the Soviet occupation and the development of country-wide resistance, local areas came increasingly under the control of mujaheddin groups that were largely independent of any higher authority; local commanders, in some instances, asserted a measure of independence also from the mujaheddin leadership in Pakistan, establishing their own systems of local government, collecting revenues, running educational and other facilities, and even engaging in local negotiations.
Mujaheddin groups retained links with the Peshawar parties to ensure access to weapons that were doled out to the parties by the government of Pakistan for distribution to fighters inside Afghanistan.
The Taliban set up a shura assembly , made up of senior Taliban members and important tribal from the area. Each shura made laws and collected taxes locally. The Taliban set up a provisional government for the whole of Afghanistan, but it did not exercise central control over the local shuras.
The process of setting up the transitional government in June by the Loya Jirga took many steps involving local government. First, at the district and municipal level, traditional shura councils met to pick electors—persons who cast ballots for Loya Jirga delegates. Each district or municipality had to choose a predetermined number of electors, based on the size of its population. The electors then traveled to regional centers and cast ballots, to choose from amongst themselves a smaller number of loya jirga delegates— according to allotted numbers assigned to each district.
The delegates then took part in the Loya Jirga. The warlords who rule various regions of the country exert local control. The transitional government is attempting to integrate local governing authorities with the central government, but it lacks the loyalty from the warlords necessary to its governing authority. More traditional elements of political authority—such as Sufi networks, royal lineage, clan strength, age-based wisdom, and the like—still exist and play a role in Afghan society.
Karzai is relying on these traditional sources of authority in his challenge to the warlords and older Islamist leaders. The deep ethnic, linguistic, sectarian, tribal, racial, and regional cleavages present in the country create what is called "Qawm" identity, emphasizing the local over higher-order formations.
Qawm refers to the group to which the individual considers himself to belong, whether a subtribe, village, valley, or neighborhood.
Local governing authority relies upon these forms of identity and loyalty. Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,  each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal , Chittagong , Dhaka , Khulna , Rajshahi , Sylhet , Rangpur and Mymensingh Division.
Divisions are divided into zila. There are 64 zila in Bangladesh, each further divided into upazila or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions , with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas.
There are no directly elected officials at the divisional or district levels, although elected chairs of subdistricts also sit on district councils.
In , a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats out of 12 in every union for female candidates. Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. Other major cities, these and other municipalities electing a mayor and councilors for each ward, include Mymensingh, Gopalganj, Jessore, Bogra, Dinajpur, Saidapur, Narayanganj, Naogaon and Rangamati.
Both the municipal heads are elected for a span of five years. The administrative divisions of Brunei mainly consist of daerah , mukim and kampung or kampong. They are organised hierarchically, with daerah being the first level and kampong the third level. All the administrative divisions are under direct governance of the government through the Ministry of Home Affairs.
The administrative level of mukim lies below the district. A mukim is headed by a penghulu. A village Malay: kampung or kampong is the lowest administrative level in Brunei and headed by a ketua kampong or village head. Its population varies from a few hundreds to tens of thousands. The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes four types of local government in Israel: [ citation needed ].
Since the Meiji restoration , Japan has had a local government system based on prefectures. The national government oversees much of the country. Municipal governments were historical villages. Now mergers are common for cost effective administration.
There are 47 prefectures. They have two main responsibilities. One is mediation between national and municipal governments. The other is area wide administration. Local government is the lowest level in the system of government in Malaysia—after federal and state. It has the power to collect taxes in the form of assessment tax , to create laws and rules in the form of by-laws and to grant licenses and permits for any trade in its area of jurisdiction, in addition to providing basic amenities, collecting and managing waste and garbage as well as planning and developing the area under its jurisdiction.
Which is ruled by third level of government after Federal and Provincial government. In Nepal there are total local levels government including 6 six Metropolises , 11 Sub-metropolises , Municipalities and Gaunpalikas. And there are total 6, wards are formed under these local levels. These local government are ruled by local leaders and the Mayor is the supreme of each local government which is elected every 5 Five year by local public.
Local government is the third tier of government in Pakistan, after Federal Government and Provincial Government. There are three types of administrative unit of local government in Pakistan:. There are over five thousand local governments in Pakistan.
Since , these have been led by democratically elected local councils, each headed by a Nazim the word means "supervisor" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor. Some districts, incorporating large metropolitan areas, are called City Districts.
Local Government and the Challenges of Community and Rural Development in Nigeria: The Way Forward
Journal Metrics. The source of information for this study is secondary source. Three research questions and three objectives guided this study. The general objective of the study is the relationship between the local government administration and rural development in Enugu State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were: to assess the role of the local government administration in rural development in Enugu State, to investigate whether job creation and provision of infrastructures by the government led to decline in rural-urban migration and to find out the relationship between governments budgetary allocation and rural development in Enugu State. Giving the descriptive and argumentative nature of the paper, qualitative method of data gathering and analysis were adopted in the conduct of the research.
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Восемь рядов по восемь! - возбужденно воскликнула Сьюзан. Соши быстро печатала. Фонтейн наблюдал молча. Предпоследний щит становился все тоньше. - Шестьдесят четыре буквы! - скомандовала Сьюзан.
Она молила Бога, чтобы Стратмору звонил Дэвид. Скажи мне скорей, что с ним все в порядке, - думала. - Скажи, что он нашел кольцо. Но коммандер поймал ее взгляд и нахмурился. Значит, это не Дэвид. Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее перехватило дыхание.
Ведь если внести в код ряд изменений, Цифровая крепость будет работать на нас, а не против. Ничего более абсурдного Сьюзан слышать еще не доводилось.
Такси следовало за Беккером, с ревом сокращая скорость. Свернув, оно промчалось через ворота Санта-Крус, обломав в узком проезде боковое зеркало. Беккер знал, что он выиграл. Санта-Крус - самый старый район Севильи, где нет проездов между зданиями, лишь лабиринт узких ходов, восходящих еще к временам Древнего Рима. Протиснуться здесь могли в крайнем случае только пешеходы, проехал бы мопед.
Лучше всего - Нетскейп. Сьюзан сжала ее руку. - Давайте скорее. Попробуем порыскать. ГЛАВА 125 - Сколько у нас времени? - крикнул Джабба.
Цифровая крепость оказалась фарсом, наживкой для Агентства национальной безопасности. Когда Стратмор предпринимал какой-либо шаг, Танкадо стоял за сценой, дергая за веревочки. - Я обошел программу Сквозь строй, - простонал коммандер. - Но вы же не знали.