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- Peace and conflict studies
- War, Peace and International Security
- War peace and international relations
- Clausewitz: War, Peace and Politics
Qty : Please note there is a week delivery period for this title. By combining primary research, theoretical lenses from various academic disciplines, and women's lived experiences in all their trauma, healing, and triumph, Women Waging Peace and War reinforces the critical need for international organizations, non-governmental organizations, and policy leaders to empower women.
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts including social conflicts , with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition. This social science is in contrast to military studies , which has as its aim on the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts, primarily by violent means to the satisfaction of one or more, but not all, parties involved. Disciplines involved may include philosophy , political science , geography , economics , psychology , sociology , international relations , history , anthropology , religious studies , and gender studies , as well as a variety of others.
Peace and conflict studies
Bassford However, with sometimes-controversial theories on war, peace, and politics throughout Vom Kriege , Clausewitz provides a thoroughly unique perspective by which to interpret the world that is, arguably, still highly relevant in the 21 st century, over years since the conception of Vom Kriege.
Carl von Clausewitz: a theorist of war itself. Elshtain In order to assess the way in which Clausewitz understands the relationship between war, peace, and politics in their entirety, it is first crucial to define war by Clausewitzian standards and to distinguish between absolute war and total war, as at least a vague understanding of each is certainly necessary in the interpretation of Vom Kriege.
While politics is unquestionably linked to matters of both war and peace, it is imperative that each be understood individually before one can fully grasp the concepts that Clausewitz puts forth and assess the strengths and weaknesses in his arguments. Clausewitz Book I, Ch. I War is neither a scientific game nor an international sport; it is an act of violence, characterized by destruction.
Clausewitz Book IV, Ch. XI Whereas Clausewitz submits that war is a natural part of human life, he begins to digress from reality in Book 1 into a state of fantasy, which considers the existence of absolute, or ideal, warfare. Elshtain 77 There are two motives that lead men to war in the absolute and total sense, instinctive hostility and hostile intention.
In terms of absolute war, Clausewitz discusses three characteristics that make it unique. First, the utmost use of force is necessary. Second, the aim is to disarm the enemy. Lastly, absolute war calls for the utmost exertion of powers. However, absolute war only exists in the abstract, and every requirement changes in shape when shifting to reality. For instance, while Clausewitz argues as to the impossibility of absolute war, he lists three requirements for it to occur in the real world.
War would become a completely isolated act in no way motivated by the previous history of a state or politics, limited to a single solution or to several concurrent solutions , and would contain within itself the perfect solution. The probabilities and chance that exist in reality prohibit an entirely absolute war from happening because the political will always enter the realm of war, even in its conclusion.
Though often confused with absolute war, and even used interchangeably, real war is war as it exists in the real world. War, in its ideal form, cannot be waged in a limited way, though in reality a war without limits would be neither possible nor preferable.
Gat In addition, allies that have recently been involved in war should be made during peacetime to share lessons and experiences from different types of warfare.
VIII Whereas Michael Doyle, the author of Ways of War and Peace , criticizes Clausewitz for ruminating that war is a constant and never gives an explanation as to how to eliminate war entirely, it would seem that Clausewitz never set out to eradicate war but to theorize on how to be successful in war. To Clausewitz, there are no special tactics for peace. In what Clausewitz refers to as the theoretical concept of war, he outlines three objectives for success. First, the armed forces of the opponent must be destroyed.
Second, the country must be occupied. Third, the will of the enemy must be broken. Though Clausewitz admits that war could begin again directly after the peace, he argues that it only serves to prove that war does not carry in itself elements for a final settlement of peace. War, though not always constant, is continual. The less controlled the use of violence is by one side, the lengthier the war.
The trinity serves as a magnet to balance the three forces of war — the people, the military, and the statesmen. Clausewitz argues that the passions that kindle war must be innate in the people, the courage and talent of the commander and army plays into the realm of probability and chance, but the political aims are only the business of the government alone. Though, without the three branches working in harmony, war cannot be successfully waged.
I Bassford Above all, Clausewitz emphasizes that war exists in the realm of chance. The most certain idea about war lies in the uncertainty of it. Chance acts in a way that makes all of the elements of war more uncertain and can ultimately alter the course of events. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war.
Clausewitz Book 8, Ch. Earle War then seems to be approaching its abstract form, and appears to be purely military and less political. Book I, Ch. In wars where one side cannot disarm the other side entirely, the motives towards peace will rise and fall on each side depending on the probability of future success. II While war clearly provides the foundations for Vom Kriege , it is evident that politics holds together the space between war and politics. In the way that Clausewitz understands the relationship between war, peace, and politics, his work remains the most comprehensive and, in some instances, modern contribution to political, military, and strategic thought as it stands.
The main strength in Vom Kriege lies in that Clausewitz never attempts to impose a set solution. Bassford Hart even went so far as to suggest that Clausewitz had inadvertently caused the bloodbath on the Western Front from , with the great misinterpretation of his theories by his disciples. While Clausewitz himself recognized that these standards were next to impossible to meet in reality, both the possibility and the impossibility have increased exponentially with new technology.
First, though Clausewitz could not have foreseen the possibility of nuclear weapons whilst living in the 19 th century, with the advent of nuclear bombs and the like, his theory of absolute war could, in fact become a reality in the 21 st century.
However, in the present day, an opponent cannot feasibly disarm a nuclear-armed superpower, as mutually assured destruction MAD ensures this. On the other hand, while war in itself was no longer a playable option due to deterrence during the Cold War, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of more regional and world powers, the international arena began to transform into one ruled by the political will of the nation-states.
While Clausewitz was considered obsolete in the context of the bi-polar Cold War, the resurgence of world and regional powers in a multi-polar world reaffirmed the lessons of Clausewitz. The change back to multi-polarity shows that Clausewitz is even more relevant today than his work was for the better half of the 20 th century, and there is strength in that Vom Kriege has, in fact, withstood the test of time.
Because of this continued application to the modern world, even over years later, it is difficult to disagree with Clausewitz and the concepts of war, peace, and politics set forth in his work. Though there are clearly some contextual issues, given that he gained influence from the political atmosphere of the early 19 th century, in the end, Carl von Clausewitz is the war theorist to consult when advice is necessary on war, peace, and politics.
Bassford, C. Clausewitz and His Works [Online]. New York: Oxford University Press, Bristow, T. February American Chronicle. Cimbala, S. New York: Routledge, Earle, E. Gat, A. Howard, M. Clausewitz: A Very Short Introduction.
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Elshtain 77 In order to assess the way in which Clausewitz understands the relationship between war, peace, and politics in their entirety, it is first crucial to define war by Clausewitzian standards and to distinguish between absolute war and total war, as at least a vague understanding of each is certainly necessary in the interpretation of Vom Kriege.
I Bassford Above all, Clausewitz emphasizes that war exists in the realm of chance. Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses In the way that Clausewitz understands the relationship between war, peace, and politics, his work remains the most comprehensive and, in some instances, modern contribution to political, military, and strategic thought as it stands.
Bassford On the other hand, while war in itself was no longer a playable option due to deterrence during the Cold War, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of more regional and world powers, the international arena began to transform into one ruled by the political will of the nation-states. Clausewitz: Philosopher of War. New York: Routledge, Clausewitz, C. On War.
New York: E. Dutton and Co. W, Ways of War and Peace. New York: W. Norton and Co. Women and War. Are We at War? A Clausewitzian Critique of Hybrid Warfare. Please Consider Donating Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. Download PDF. Subscribe Get our weekly email.
War, Peace and International Security
War peace and international relations
War, Peace and International Relations provides an introduction to the strategic history of the past two centuries, showing how those years were shaped and reshaped extensively by war. The book takes a broad view of what was relevant to the causes, courses, and consequences of wars. Written by leading strategist Professor Colin Gray, the book provides students with a good grounding in the contribution of war to the development of the modern world, from the pre-industrial era to the age of international terrorism and smart weapons. This textbook will be essential reading for students of strategic studies, security studies, war studies, international relations and international history.
Clausewitz: War, Peace and Politics
War has been far too common in human history and thus is the central problem of international relations. Many political scientists and foreign policymakers view war as the continuation of politics: When diplomacy fails, some states decide to use force. Others see war as the result of a breakdown of the modern international system because so many of the rules of international institutions were designed to reduce conflict among states.
Bassford However, with sometimes-controversial theories on war, peace, and politics throughout Vom Kriege , Clausewitz provides a thoroughly unique perspective by which to interpret the world that is, arguably, still highly relevant in the 21 st century, over years since the conception of Vom Kriege. Carl von Clausewitz: a theorist of war itself. Elshtain In order to assess the way in which Clausewitz understands the relationship between war, peace, and politics in their entirety, it is first crucial to define war by Clausewitzian standards and to distinguish between absolute war and total war, as at least a vague understanding of each is certainly necessary in the interpretation of Vom Kriege. While politics is unquestionably linked to matters of both war and peace, it is imperative that each be understood individually before one can fully grasp the concepts that Clausewitz puts forth and assess the strengths and weaknesses in his arguments. Clausewitz Book I, Ch.
The United Nations came into being in , following the devastation of the Second World War, with one central mission: the maintenance of international peace and security. The UN does this by working to prevent conflict; helping parties in conflict make peace; peacekeeping; and creating the conditions to allow peace to hold and flourish. These activities often overlap and should reinforce one another, to be effective. The UN Security Council has the primary responsibility for international peace and security. The General Assembly and the Secretary-General play major, important, and complementary roles, along with other UN offices and bodies.
The conventional understanding of war and peace in international relations is that nation A is either at "war" or at "peace" with nation B. Therefore, the conclusion was that nations are neither at war nor at peace. Their affairs are conducted in a state of intermediacy.
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S President Barack Obama. When Plato said that only the dead have seen the end of war, his remarks echoed the history of his time. Peace has been central to this process of inquiry and thought which has led humanity to its present condition. Theories of peace and war have been central to this cognitive exercise. However, in the last three centuries, relations between nation-states have taken the central stage. Nonetheless, there are still considerable obstacles that remain in the pursuit of peace. Theorists have outlined them and literature has shed light on these hurdles whereas in some cases the pre-occupation with peace has also led towards a more hostile state of international affairs amongst nations as well as peoples.
В следующую секунду, со сломанными шейными позвонками, он сполз на пол.
Он потребовал, чтобы я публично, перед всем миром, рассказал о том, что у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Он сказал, что, если мы признаем, что можем читать электронную почту граждан, он уничтожит Цифровую крепость. Сьюзан смотрела на него с сомнением. Стратмор пожал плечами: - Так или иначе, уже слишком поздно. Он разместил бесплатный образец Цифровой крепости на своем сайте в Интернете.
- Я кое о чем тебе не рассказал. Иной раз человек в моем положении… - Он замялся, словно принимая трудное решение. - Иногда человек в моем положении вынужден лгать людям, которых любит. Сегодня как раз такой день. - В глазах его читалась печаль.
Чед Бринкерхофф, - представился. - Личный помощник директора. Сьюзан сумела лишь невнятно прошептать: - ТРАНС… Бринкерхофф кивнул. - Забудьте об. Поехали.