File Name: metal nanoparticles synthesis characterization and applications .zip
Green Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Nanoparticles shows how eco-friendly nanoparticles are engineered and used. In particular, metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and other categories of nanoparticles are discussed.
- Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications
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- Copper Nanoparticles: A Review on Synthesis, Characterization and Applications
Translating the conventional scientific concepts into a new robust invention is a much needed one at a present scenario to develop some novel materials with intriguing properties. Particles in nanoscale exhibit superior activity than their bulk counterpart.
Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications
Translating the conventional scientific concepts into a new robust invention is a much needed one at a present scenario to develop some novel materials with intriguing properties. Particles in nanoscale exhibit superior activity than their bulk counterpart. This unique feature is intensively utilized in physical, chemical, and biological sectors.
Each metal is holding unique optical properties that can be utilized to synthesize metallic nanoparticles. At present, versatile nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical and biological methods. Metallic nanoparticles pose numerous scientific merits and have promising industrial applications. But concerning the pros and cons of metallic nanoparticle synthesis methods, researchers elevate to drive the synthesis process of nanoparticles through the utilization of plant resources as a substitute for use of chemicals and reagents under the theme of green chemistry.
These synthesized nanoparticles exhibit superior antimicrobial, anticancer, larvicidal, leishmaniasis, wound healing, antioxidant, and as a sensor. Therefore, the utilization of such conceptualized nanoparticles in treating infectious and environmental applications is a warranted one. Green chemistry is a keen prudence method, in which bioresources is used as a template for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review, we exclusively update the context of plant-based metallic nanoparticle synthesis, characterization, and applications in detailed coverage.
Hopefully, our review will be modernizing the recent trends going on in metallic nanoparticles synthesis for the blooming research fraternities.
Nanotechnology is a new-fangled term that becomes an inescapable part of the modern tool and people are now witnessing the ease of technology in day to day applications [ 1 ]. The small-sized nanoparticles 1— nm dominate the entire research globally, due to its stupendous applications in physical, chemical, and biological sciences [ 2 ].
Due to intensive and extensive research by the research fraternity, nanotechnology has successfully knocked on the door and a common man at present scenario experiencing the feature of nanotechnology [ 3 ].
The delivery address given by Nobel laureate Richard P. When materials are operated at the nanoscale level, the properties of the materials have changed and exhibited tremendous optical, magnetic, and electrical properties. Such kind of unique nano properties is utilized in electronics, batteries, fuel additives, solar cells, catalysts, electrochemical industries, defense, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, food additives and packaging, agriculture, biosensors, diagnostic imaging, vaccines, antimicrobial and chemotherapy, and drug delivery [ 5 ].
These kinds of nanoparticles are varying in their morphology, size and shape, and optical properties but excel in various applications in divergent fields [ 7 ]. In this review, we conceptualize the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles MN synthesis plants only , characterization, and their biological applications in a lucid approach.
This review will pose a better understanding of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles NPs and their applications to the scientific community in a substantial manner. Nanotechnology is not an era of modern science while reverting to history; nanotechnology exists in the history of arts and nature beings. In sculpture, gold and copper are mixed with other substances and reduced in a defined temperature into respective metal ions.
This resultant mixture is applied on the surface of the coatings to make a glittering effect. Naturally, NP operates at the nanoscale in various living beings. These natural nanomaterials have the unique property of molecular recognition due to which they can self assemble [ 8 ].
The most dynamic example of natural nanoparticles is a nanoscopic wax crystal papillae in the upper side of each epidermal cell of lotus leaf to reduce the contact area of water with leaf.
Bhasma is a unique Ayurvedic herbal-mineral-metallic compound in the size of nano dimensions usually 5—50 nm. In the current epoch, nano-based concepts and applications are again flourishing since the s in all scientific sectors.
In particular, the Nanobiotechnology concept started at the beginning of the twentieth century exploring various new avenues in the development of nanomedicine and for developing a sustainable environment. Metallic nanoparticles are becoming the limelight of research for scientists and they have proved their competence in various reports addressing the synthesis and applications of versatile inorganic metal nanoparticles silver, gold, copper, iron, gold, platinum, and palladium [ 9 ] Fig.
The specific properties of metallic nanoparticles are it exhibits prospective optoelectronic and dimensional characteristics superior to their bulk metals [ 10 ]. These particular traits render an increase in the surface to volume ratio, reactivity, efficiency, and functional modifications that can tap their potential in diverse applications as multifunctional technical tools [ 11 ].
Both these approaches differ in the synthesis principles but finally produce NPs with desired characteristics. In the top-down approach, bulk materials were shattered into the bit to bit pieces leading to the fine generations of NPs. Each method has its limitations and fine production capacity of NPs.
The top-down approach is quite a feasible technique resulting in the production of a large mass of NPs. The optical and physio-chemical properties of the NPs depend on the surface architecture of NPs; henceforth, top-down approach of NPs synthesis is restricted in some cases of applications. Henceforth, bottom-up is an amenable technique for creating nanoclusters intended for various applications. The synthesis of nanomaterials using physical methods involves deposition, sputtering, ball milling, and plasma-based techniques [ 16 ].
The rate of synthesis of metal nanoparticles is very slow in most of these methods. A high-energy consumption is required for laser ablation and plasma techniques. Extensive size distribution, slow production rate, and waste by-products and high consumption of energy make most of the physical methods extremely expensive which cannot be adopted for practical commercial applications [ 18 ]. A variety of chemical methods for nanoparticle synthesis has been put forward and most of them are widely used to synthesize nanostructured materials e.
Moreover, employing hazardous chemicals and reagents during the synthesis process and generation of byproducts is lethal to humans and the environment also [ 20 ]. Therefore, specifically such kind of NPs is limited for biological applications. Green nanotechnology is an emerging field to design novel NPs using a green chemistry approach.
Biological methods of NPs synthesis provide a new possibility of synthesizing NPs using natural reducing and stabilizing agents. It is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical and physical approaches with no usage of energy and toxic chemicals. Biological synthesis of NPs is a bottom-up approach that involves the use of simple unicellular to complex multicellular biological entities like bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and yeast, algae, and plant materials [ 21 — 27 ].
Microbial-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is another variant method of producing nanoparticles. In this synthesis method, microbial culture filtrates extracellular and intracellular are used as a reducing agent for nanoparticles production. Generically, microbes like bacteria, fungi, yeast, and actinomycetes having the metal-tolerant capability and thrive at utmost environmental conditions [ 28 ].
These inherent features are employed by microbes to tolerate, accumulate, and convert metal into respective metal ions. For instance, the first bacterial gold nanoparticles were synthesized from Bacillus subtilis [ 29 ]. Likewise, the variant face of metallic nanoparticles silver, gold, copper, iron, zinc, platinum, and selenium were synthesized from the bacterium. At first, the metal is trapped onto the surface of bacterial cells while later, these trapped metals were exclusively reduced into metal ions by the action of enzyme NADH and NADH-dependent nitrate reductase enzymes [ 30 ].
These enzymes perform electron shuttle donor processes during synthesizing nanoparticles which are reported in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Bacillus licheniformis [ 31 ]. In fungi, Fusarium oxysporum synthesized silver nanoparticles by the action of nitrate reductase and anthraquinones [ 32 ].
Conceivably, with the above bacterial- and fungal-mediated synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, it is evident that NADPH nitrate reductase is a major biofactor in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.
Though green nanoparticles are a new alternative method for conventional nanoparticles synthesis, but for a nanoparticles synthesis and production, an ease method should be adopted. In-universe, amply bio-resources plants, microbes were available.
But for synthesis and commercialization perspective, utilization of such bioresources is imperative. In such a case, microbes can be effectively utilized; expensive, but the handling of microbes, scale-up process, molecular mutation, hurdles in mass cultivation, downstream processing, and other factors make a bottleneck for nanoparticles synthesis and application.
Henceforth, research should drive lucidly; employing plants as a resource in nanoparticles synthesis is indeed one. Plants bestowed with numerous active constituents phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, polysaccharides, polyphenols vitamins, etc.
These constituents were effectively reduced and stabilized the nanoparticles. Moreover, using plants as a resource for synthesis offers advantages such as plant material availability, cost inexpensive, easy scalable for mass production, secondary metabolites, and purgative properties. Proper and optimized use of biological entities for the synthesis of NPs will produce well-characterized and highly stable NPs.
When A reacted with B [salt] in the presence of heat, temperature, rotation per minute [RPM], and pH, A reduce B into respective metal ions and by-products. The rate of reduction and generation of NPs is influenced by various factors such as time, temperature, stiochemistric proportion, and pH. The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is accountable by the action of phytoconstituents present in the plant extracts.
Plants endowed with numerous active constituents; these constituents activate the reaction mechanism and synthesize the metallic nanoparticles. Similarly, the synthesis of metallic oxide nanoparticles is the same process but until now a lucid mechanism is not yet been explored [ 33 ]. Generally, the production of NPs with a specific shape, size, and distribution can be achieved by changing the methods of synthesis, the reducing agents, and stabilizers [ 34 ].
There are variations in plant extract used and the methodology adopted for the synthesis is important to standardize and optimize the synthesis protocol to get NPs with desired size, shape, and surface charges. Effect of biological material, precursor concentration and extract concentration on the morphology of biological nanoparticles. Likewise, the synthesis of NPs using the same plant material showed variation in its characters due to differences in the synthesis method.
The researcher used different methods for the preparation of extract, different concentration of precursor, and reducing agent with various temperature and pH. The NPs obtained with these methods are having different features concerning size and shape.
Synthesis parameters and characters of nanoparticles synthesized using plant Z. In aspects of large-scale synthesis, among the plant materials, leaves can be extensively used for large-scale synthesis. The plant material leaves will be available at all times and all seasons. Moreover, the plants will not be affected by using leaves but using other resources like a flower, fruit, seed, root, and latex will also be meaningful but the volume of materials and it should not affect crop productivity.
In plant-mediated nanoparticles, various parameters like pH, precursor, and extract concentration, time, and other factors will determine the size of nanoparticles.
Since plant constituents were different in species and genera level, so optimization of these parameters will eventually produce nanoparticles with the desired size and shape.
Another important concern of nanoparticles is stability. The colloidal stability of nanoparticles is important for long-term application studies. Comparatively, chemical-mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is stable for a long duration; biological synthesis of nanoparticles stability is determined by the capping agents. In a study, silver nanoparticles are synthesized chemically and biologically; the zeta potential of chemical AgNPs is In biological nanoparticles, the stability of the nanoparticles solution is due to the stabilization of the metal particles by the biomolecules.
Moreover, the stability of the nanoparticles is determined by pH, surface capping agents, and functionalization techniques. The role of pH during nanoparticle synthesis not only affects size but also the shape of the particle. Yang and Li [ 76 ] demonstrated the shape of the product prepared under lower pH was less regular and tend to aggregate.
While synthesis of NPs under different pH conditions, the size of particles can be produced with the desired size and shape uniformly [ 77 — 79 ]. The pH causes the local surface of nanoparticles by protonation and deprotonation of molecular atoms in the nucleation and growth stage of NPs [ 80 ]. At the alkaline pH range, the NPs forms cluster distribution in the colloidal stage preventing aggregation [ 81 ]. Armendari et al.
Therefore, formations of truncated octahedron, rhomb-dodecahedron, cubic, octahedron, and octagon structures are thermodynamically favored at the nucleation stage and at the initial growth stage when the particle sizes are not very large [ 48 ].
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Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field due to its unique functionality and a wide range of applications. Nanomedicine explores the possibilities of applying the knowledge and tools of nanotechnology for the prevention, treatment, diagnosis and control of disease. The current paper reviews various types of physical, chemical and biological methods used in the production of silver nanoparticles. It also describes approaches employing silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents, as antitumour agents, in dentistry and dental implants, as promoters of bone healing, in cardiovascular implants and as promoters of wound healing. The paper also explores the mechanism of action, synthesis methods and morphological characterisation of silver nanoparticles to examine their role in medical treatments and disease management.
Day by day augmenting importance of metal nanoparticles in the versatile fields like, catalyst, electronic, magnetic, mechanic, optical optoelectronic, materials for solar cell and fuel cell, medical, bioimaging, cosmetic, ultrafast data communication and optical data storage, etc, is increasing their value. Nanoparticles of alkali metals and noble metals copper, silver, platinum, palladium, and gold, etc. The main cause behind this phenomenon is attributed to the collective oscillations of the free conductive electrons that are induced by an interaction with electromagnetic field. The whole incidence is known as localized surface plasmonic resonance. Out of these, we have selected the silver nanoparticles for the studies. In this article, we will discuss the synthesis, characterization, and application of the silver nanoparticles.
Copper Nanoparticles: A Review on Synthesis, Characterization and Applications
DOI Nanotechnology deals with nanoparticles ranging from size 1 to nm in diameter, due to small size and high surface area eventually increases the state of activity. This review focuses on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and mainly on green synthesis, characterization and application of copper nanoparticles.
Stephan, Lachezar A. Petrov, Jijeesh R. Box , Jeddah , Saudi Arabia. Box , Doha, Qatar. Nanotechnology and nanoscale materials have been part of human history and in use since centuries.
Metrics details. Translating the conventional scientific concepts into a new robust invention is a much needed one at a present scenario to develop some novel materials with intriguing properties. Particles in nanoscale exhibit superior activity than their bulk counterpart.
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