File Name: ayurvedic medicinal plants and their uses .zip
Owing to fast paced world that we are living in, we are getting far from the nature. While the lifestyle that we live can have adverse effect on us, it is important to know that by introducing small changes in our daily life can go a long way in keeping us healthy and energetic.
This chapter focuses on reviewing publications on medicinal plants used in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma. Traditional medicine is still recognized as the preferred primary health care system in many rural communities, due to a number of reasons including affordability and effectiveness.
The review concentrated on current literature on medicinal plants, highlighting on information about ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The search for publications on medicinal plants with scientifically proven efficacy was carried out using electronic databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, SciFinder and PubMed.
In all, about 46 species of different families with potent biological and pharmacological activities were reviewed. All the plants reviewed exhibited potent activity confirming their various traditional uses and their ability to treat prevalent diseases. Pharmacognosy - Medicinal Plants. This is due to a number of reasons including affordability, accessibility and low cost [ 2 ]. The use of plants to cure several kinds of human diseases has a long history. Various parts of plants such as leaf, stem, bark, root, etc.
However, most of the pharmaceutical products currently dispensed by physicians have a long history of use as herbal remedies, including opium, aspirin, digitalis and quinine. The search for, and use of drugs and dietary supplements obtained from plants have increased in recent years. Scientist such as pharmacologists, microbiologists, botanists, and phytochemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and clues that could be developed into medicines for various diseases treatment.
It is endemic in about developing countries, leading to about 1. A wide range of medicinal plants is employed for the treatment of malaria, since majority of the people who get infected cannot afford the existing expensive orthodox medicines [ 7 ]. The problem of resistance to existing antimalarial agents by parasite has necessitated the search for new and potent agents, and the focus of researchers is on natural products especially medicinal plants since active compounds like quinine and artemisinin were isolated from plants and have been lead compounds for antimalarial drug development [ 8 , 9 ].
Various medicinal plants have been investigated for their anti-malarial activity and some with demonstrated potent in vitro activity have been reviewed below. It is a twining and scrambling thin-stemmed shrub, indigenous to Africa, with much ethno-medicinal importance and interest in the West African sub-region [ 11 ].
It is used traditionally for the treatment of malaria, upper respiratory and urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hypertension and as cicatrizant of wounds [ 12 , 13 ].
The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. The ethanolic roots and leaves extracts showed potent activity with IC 50 of 0. While the aqueous roots and leaves extracts had IC 50 of 2. Evaluating the clinical efficacy of a tea bag formulation of the root of C.
By Day 3, all presenting symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea and vomiting were completely no more. The overall cure rate when one tea bag of C. In traditional medicine, various parts of the plant is used to treat malaria, yellow fever, pile, stomach ulcer, wounds and other infections [ 17 , 18 ].
The ethanolic stem bark extract also showed an in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of P. An in vitro anti-plasmodial assay revealed that, the ethanolic extract of E. It is commonly known as Indian gooseberry, rich in vitamin C, minerals and amino acids which helps to build up lost vitality and vigor [ 23 , 24 ].
Various parts of the plant is used traditionally for the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, diabetes, jaundice, cough, asthma, peptic ulcer, skin diseases, leprosy, intermittent fevers, headache, anemia, dizziness, snakebite and scorpion-sting [ 25 ]. Also the ethyl acetate leaf extract showed activity with IC 50 of 7. Eugenia caryophyllata , an ancient and valuable spice is a member of the family Myrtaceae and is commonly known as clove. It is mostly used as a spice to flavor all kinds of foods and has other medicinal values including anthelmintic, anti-asthma and other allergic disorders, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral and anti-parasitic properties [ 27 ].
It occurs naturally in tropical and subtropical parts of Southeast Asia. Eichler, Salicaceae is an evergreen shrub or small tree with long, slender branches and a very dense globose crown. It has been employed in traditional medicine for treating snake bites, wounds, inflammation, fevers, gastric ulcers and diarrhea [ 29 ]. The hexane extracts of C. The tree serves as source of tannins and wood locally, and in traditional medicine as diuretic, stimulant, expectorant, natural surfactant, sedative and for treating stomach-ache and dermatitis [ 31 ].
It is native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil. It usually grows in large clusters, forming a homogeneous mass. It is a species characteristic of swamp forest, and does not grow in the driest places.
It is used as a condiment in food, a carminative and aphrodisiac in traditional medicine [ 32 ]. It is a medium-sized tree with long, hanging branches that can make the crown look like a Christmas tree. Leaves are alternate, narrow, pointed, in a flat plane and arranged regularly along the branches.
It is a common roadside and farmland species of the Pacific slope, not in the forest [ 33 ]. Traditionally, it is employed in the treatment of fever [ 33 ]. The in vitro antiplasmodial study of the ethanol extract revealed an effective activity against P.
Juss is commonly known as neem tree or Indian lilac and belongs to the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem is effective against certain fungi that infect humans and hence used to treat skin diseases like eczema, psoriasis [ 34 ]. The methanolic stem bark extract inhibited chloroquine resistant P. Traditionally, it is an anti-inflammatory herbal drug and is useful in treating toothaches [ 36 ]. The stem bark methanol extract showed anti-plasmodial activity with IC 50 of 3.
Cholera is an acute intestinal disease caused by a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative, comma-shaped rod bacterium, known as V. Cholera is a life threatening disease transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The organisms adhere to and colonize the small bowel within a short incubation period, where they secrete cholera enterotoxin leading to severe and watery diarrhea accompanied with vomiting, dehydration and eventually death if not treated promptly [ 37 ].
Various antibiotics have been effective for the treatment of cholera; however, the worldwide problem of microbial resistance to existing antimicrobial medicines has led to most antibiotic failure. Researchers are therefore shifting their focus to natural products, especially medicinal plant, with effective antimicrobial properties.
Some medicinal plants with potent anti-cholera activity are reviewed below. It leaves are oval, alternate to subopposite in arrangement and is a native to South Asia, from India and Nepal east to southwest China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Vietnam.
Traditionally, it has been used for treatment of indigestion, diarrhea and diabetes [ 38 ]. The plant extract used to treat Cholera worked effectively against the strains of V. The methanol fruit extract of T. Skeels Myrtaceae , known as Jam is an evergreen tropical tree, native to the Indian Subcontinent, adjoining regions of Southeast Asia, China and Queensland.
The leaves are pinkish when young, and changes to dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature [ 40 ]. The seeds have traditionally been used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, piles, indigestion and diabetes.
The original plant specimen came from Java. Some traditional uses of the plant include treatment of dyspepsia, fever, burning sensation, colic, ulcers, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, pimples [ 42 ].
Common names include flame-of-the-forest and bastard teak. Its flowers are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder and eye diseases [ 43 ].
It is native to South America but it can be found on most continents as an introduced species and often a weed. This is an annual herb forming a mat of prostrate stems [ 44 ]. Purified bioactive fraction of aqueous extract of E. Vachellia farnesiana , also known as A. Willd, commonly known as sweet acacia or needle bush, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae. The species grows to a height of 4. The bark methanolic extract revealed a potent bactericidal activity against two strains of V.
White sagebrush of the family Asteraceae is native to North America where it is widespread across most of the United States, Canada and Mexico. It is a rhizomatous perennial plant growing to height of 0.
Medicinally, it is used for dermatological purposes and for treating cold [ 48 ]. The anti-cholera activity of the methanol whole plant extract was effective and bactericidal against O AI and O1 B V. The minimum bactericidal concentrations against the two strains were 0.
Basil Lamiaceae can be found in Tropical Asia. It is a perennial growing up to 0. Medicinally it is used for the treatment of fever, colds, influenza, poor digestion, nausea, abdominal cramps, gastro-enteritis, migraine, insomnia, depression and exhaustion [ 49 ].
The methanol whole plant extract exhibited a bactericidal activity against V. It is commonly known as prickly pear or Nopal cactus. It originated from Mexico and cultivated in other parts of the world including Mediterranean Basin, Middle East and northern Africa [ 50 ].
Apocynaceae commonly known in India as Henna is a flowering plant and the sole species of the genus Lawsonia. It is a tall shrub or small tree, standing 1. The henna plant is native to northern Africa, western and southern Asia, northern Australia, and thrives well in semi-arid zones and tropical areas.
It is useful medicinally for burning sensation, leprosy, skin diseases, amenorrhoea, and dysmenorrhea and as abortifacient [ 51 ].
The ethanolic leaf extract exhibited an in vitro anti-vibrio activity with MICs ranging from 2. Tuberculosis TB is an airborne infectious disease which does not only affect the lungs but also other parts of the body such as the brain and spine [ 52 ].
The main cause of TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other M. The predominant symptoms of active TB are fever, night sweat, weight loss and chronic cough with blood containing sputum. However, most TB infections are latent which may progress into active disease if left untreated [ 52 ]. Treatment of TB is very tedious and requires a long course with multiple antibiotics involved.
Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety. The earliest historical records of herbs are found from the Sumerian civilisation, where hundreds of medicinal plants including opium are listed on clay tablets.
Not only is this book a monograph, but it also serves as a color atlas of medicinal plants. It will be an immensely valuable resource for the students, faculty, academicians, and researchers in Ayurveda, homeopathy, Unani, Siddha, botany, pharmacy, medicinal plants, and other related branches of study at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. She did MD Ayu. She has taught for 7 years and has 18 research papers to her credit, published in peer reviewed research journals, and has authored three books. Complimentary copies are available to teaching faculty for review prior to course adoption. Please complete this form to request a complimentary copy.
Home News philippine herbal plants and their uses pdf. Download this image for free in High-Definition resolution the choice "download button" below. Herbal medicines has gained a wide acceptance and popularity among Filipinos in providing basic medical care. It is rumored they first started using plants and herbs for healing after watching animals eat certain plants when they were sick. Philippine herbal plants their uses sampa sampalukan is one images from 43 dream plants and their uses with pictures photo of Homes DIY Decor photos gallery. A very popular Philippine herbal flowering plant used as medicine to treat wounds and cuts, rheumatism, anti-diarrhea, anti-spams, colds and coughs.
medicinal plants is needed in order to understand their potential influence fully. While societal use of ayurvedic plants and Indian. spices is commonplace.
Ayurvedic & Medicinal Plants
Metrics details. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period AC — The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae 35 , Lamiaceae 25 , and Solanaceae Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.
This book highlights the medical importance of and increasing global interest in herbal medicines, herbal health products, herbal pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, food supplements, herbal cosmetics, etc.
Gallery of Medicinal Plants
This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases.
This chapter focuses on reviewing publications on medicinal plants used in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma. Traditional medicine is still recognized as the preferred primary health care system in many rural communities, due to a number of reasons including affordability and effectiveness. The review concentrated on current literature on medicinal plants, highlighting on information about ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The search for publications on medicinal plants with scientifically proven efficacy was carried out using electronic databases such as Science Direct, Google Scholar, SciFinder and PubMed.
different medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. In India it is reported that traditional. healers use plant species and
Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine. It aims to preserve health and wellness by keeping the mind, body, and spirit in balance and preventing disease rather than treating it. To do so, it employs a holistic approach that combines diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes 1. Ayurvedic herbs and spices are also an important component of this approach. Ashwagandha Withania somnifera is a small woody plant native to India and North Africa. Its root and berries are used to produce a very popular Ayurvedic remedy 2.
Фонтейн почти во всем полагался на Стратмора и верил в его план, в том числе и в достойную сожаления, но неизбежную необходимость устранять Энсея Танкадо и в переделку Цифровой крепости, - все это было правильно. Но одно не давало Фонтейну покоя - то, что Стратмор решил прибегнуть к услугам Халохота. Тот, конечно, был мастером своего дела, но наемник остается наемником. Можно ли ему доверять. А не заберет ли он ключ. Фонтейну нужно было какое-то прикрытие - на всякий случай, - и он принял необходимые меры.
Но нам известно, где. - И вы не хотите ничего предпринять. - Нет. Он подстраховался - передал копию ключа анонимной третьей стороне на тот случай… ну, если с ним что-нибудь случится. Это можно было предвидеть, - подумала Сьюзан.
- Подождите. Я же просил меня подбросить. ГЛАВА 59 Сьюзан протянула руку, и коммандер Стратмор помог ей подняться по лестнице в помещение шифровалки. А перед глазами у нее стоял образ Фила Чатрукьяна, его искалеченного и обгоревшего тела, распростертого на генераторах, а из головы не выходила мысль о Хейле, притаившемся в лабиринтах шифровалки. Правда открылась со всей очевидностью: Хейл столкнул Чатрукьяна.
На этот раз послышались длинные гудки. Фонтейн насчитал уже шесть гудков. Бринкерхофф и Мидж смотрели, как он нервно шагает по комнате, волоча за собой телефонный провод.
Но Сьюзан не желала иметь с ним никакого дела.