File Name: signs and symptoms of hepatitis b .zip
HBV is one of five types of viral hepatitis.
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis B - symptoms, treatment, vaccination
- Everything you need to know about hepatitis B
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B is hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus.
People from endemic areas Asia, Africa , or injection drug users and those with high-risk sexual behaviors, are at an increased risk for infection. Most people are asymptomatic, although some will present with complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver failure. Serologic markers are essential in making the diagnosis and evaluating disease activity, including differentiating between people with acute and chronic infection and chronic asymptomatic carriers. Goal of treatment is to improve survival and quality of life by preventing disease progression.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis B is hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B virus spreads through contact with infected blood. Specifically, hepatitis B may be spread through:.
The hepatitis B virus can cause temporary or long-term chronic hepatitis. The initial infection with the virus may not even cause symptoms. Immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine can greatly reduce the risk of hepatitis B. People that do develop symptoms following initial infection with the virus have acute hepatitis. Most of them will clear the virus from their liver and blood.
But a minority of people will develop a long-term infection. This is called chronic hepatitis. In chronic hepatitis, the symptoms of hepatitis often disappear then come back later. People with chronic hepatitis remain infectious.
They can pass on the virus to others. Some people are not able to rid their body of the infection. But they do not have any symptoms of disease. These people are called carriers. They also can pass the infection to others. These symptoms may be followed by jaundice. Jaundice is a yellowing of the eyes and skin, and a darkening of the urine. Most people recover from acute hepatitis.
They are no longer infected with the virus when their illness ends. However, about one in ten adults may develop chronic hepatitis. They remain infected by the virus, can develop chronic liver disease, and can pass the virus to other people. People with chronic hepatitis may be free of symptoms for long periods. But symptoms eventually reappear. Symptoms, when they do occur, may include:. A small number of people with chronic hepatitis develop liver cirrhosis.
This is scarring of the liver that results in poor liver function. They may develop symptoms of advanced liver disease, including:. Your doctor will ask about any potential exposures to hepatitis B.
This includes any illegal drug use or unprotected sexual activity. Your doctor will examine your skin, eyes, and abdomen for evidence of fluid accumulation. He or she will estimate the size of your liver. Blood tests can also confirm a hepatitis B diagnosis. They detect the presence and amount of hepatitis B virus in the blood. The tests also detect antibodies to the virus. Antibodies are proteins produced by your immune system to attack the virus.
People who have completely recovered from an acute hepatitis B infection usually have antibodies in their blood. But they do not have any detectable virus. People with acute or chronic hepatitis who have an active infection usually have detectable levels of virus in their blood.
Your doctor may suspect that you have significant liver damage. In this case, he or she may recommend a liver biopsy. In a biopsy, a small amount of tissue is removed and examined in a laboratory. It helps determine whether you are developing signs of cirrhosis. Most people recover from an acute infection within 3 months.
People may feel well during this time. But it may take up to 4 months before hepatitis B virus is no longer detected in the blood. In the United States and many other countries, hepatitis B vaccine is offered to all children. Adults at high risk of exposure also should be immunized. These include medical personnel. There is no cure for acute hepatitis B.
Rather, treatment is aimed at reducing the amount of virus in the body, and easing the inflammation that causes the symptoms. In rare cases, an episode of acute hepatitis B can be unusually severe.
It may require hospitalization. A very small number of people with acute infection will develop liver failure. They require a liver transplant to prevent death. Antiviral drugs approved for treatment of chronic hepatitis B include adefovir , entecavir , lamivudine , telbivudine , and tenofovir.
People with chronic liver disease that continues to worsen can be considered for a liver transplant. This procedure can be lifesaving. Call your doctor if you develop symptoms of hepatitis B. Severe symptoms may require hospital treatment. If you have a chronic hepatitis B infection and you develop symptoms of advanced liver disease, seek immediate medical attention. Symptoms of advanced liver disease include:. In most cases of acute hepatitis B, people recover completely after the short-term infection.
However, a small percentage of patients go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. In people with chronic hepatitis B, the outlook depends upon the severity of liver inflammation, the amount of scarring cirrhosis and response to antiviral treatment.
People with mild liver damage who have no virus detected in the blood have a better prognosis. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
Hepatitis B What Is It? Published: February, E-mail Address. First Name Optional.
Hepatitis B - symptoms, treatment, vaccination
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Hepatitis A, B, and D are preventable with immunization. Worldwide in , hepatitis A occurred in about million people, chronic hepatitis B affected about million people and chronic hepatitis C about million people. Both drug-induced hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis can present very similarly to acute viral hepatitis, with slight variations in symptoms depending on the cause. Fulminant hepatitis, or massive hepatic cell death , is a rare and life-threatening complication of acute hepatitis that can occur in cases of hepatitis B, D, and E, in addition to drug-induced and autoimmune hepatitis.
Everything you need to know about hepatitis B
The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you.
For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis — a condition that permanently scars of the liver. Most adults with hepatitis B recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic long-lasting hepatitis B infection. A vaccine can prevent hepatitis B, but there's no cure if you have the condition.