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- Functional Food and Human Health
- A REVIEW DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND THEIR HEALTH BENEFITS
- Functional foods in health and disease
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Functional Food and Human Health
Clare M. Functional foods can be considered to be those whole, fortified, enriched or enhanced foods that provide health benefits beyond the provision of essential nutrients e.
However, not all foods on the market today that are claimed to be functional foods are supported by enough solid data to merit such claims. This review categorizes a variety of functional foods according to the type of evidence supporting their functionality, the strength of that evidence and the recommended intakes. Functional foods represent one of the most intensively investigated and widely promoted areas in the food and nutrition sciences today.
However, it must be emphasized that these foods and ingredients are not magic bullets or panaceas for poor health habits. Diet is only one aspect of a comprehensive approach to good health. That foods might provide therapeutic benefits is clearly not a new concept. In the s, the important role of diet in disease prevention and health promotion came to the forefront once again. During the first 50 years of the 20th century, scientific focus was on the identification of essential elements, particularly vitamins, and their role in the prevention of various dietary deficiency diseases.
Public Health Service. All of these reports are aimed at public policy and education emphasizing the importance of consuming a diet that is low in saturated fat, and high in vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and stroke. Scientists also began to identify physiologically active components in foods from both plants and animals known as phytochemicals and zoochemicals, respectively that potentially could reduce risk for a variety of chronic diseases.
All foods are functional to some extent because all foods provide taste, aroma and nutritive value. However, foods are now being examined intensively for added physiologic benefits, which may reduce chronic disease risk or otherwise optimize health. The concept was first developed in Japan in the s when, faced with escalating health care costs, the Ministry of Health and Welfare initiated a regulatory system to approve certain foods with documented health benefits in hopes of improving the health of the nation's aging population 1.
In the United States, functional foods have no such regulatory identity. However, several organizations have proposed definitions for this new food category.
Several factors are responsible for the fact that this is one of the most active areas of research in the nutrition sciences today: 1 an emphasis in nutritional and medical research on associations between diet and dietary constituents and health benefits, 2 a favorable regulatory environment, 3 the consumer self-care phenomenon, and 4 rapid growth in the market for health and wellness products. According to the Department of Health and Human Services, diet plays a role in 5 of 10 of the leading causes of death, including coronary heart disease CHD , certain types of cancer, stroke, diabetes noninsulin dependent or type 2 and atherosclerosis.
The dietary pattern that has been linked with these major causes of death in the United States and other developed countries is characterized as relatively high in total and saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium and refined sugars and relatively low in unsaturated fat, grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables. An accumulating body of research now suggests that consumption of certain foods or their associated physiologically active components may be linked to disease risk reduction 6. The great majority of these components derive from plants; however, there are several classes of physiologically active functional food ingredients of animal or microbial origin.
Claims linking the consumption of functional foods or food ingredients with health outcomes require sound scientific evidence and significant scientific agreement. Table 1 categorizes a variety of functional foods according to the type of evidence supporting their functionality, the strength of that evidence and the recommended intake levels.
Strength of evidence for functional foods currently on the U. The FDA's schematic of significant scientific agreement released in December 22, guidance document 7. Thus, the strength of the evidence for a diet disease relationship strengthens as one moves from left to right on the schematic. Probably the most intensively investigated class of physiologically-active components derived from animal products are the n-3 fatty acids, predominantly found in fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines and herring 8.
DHA is an essential component of the phospholipids of cellular membranes, especially in the brain and retina of the eye, and is necessary for their proper functioning. DHA is particularly important for the development of these two organs in infants 9 , and just recently, the FDA cleared the use of DHA and arachidonic acid for use in formula for full-term infants Hundreds of clinical studies have been conducted investigating the physiologic effects of n-3 fatty acids in such chronic conditions as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease 11 , with the best-documented health benefit being their role in heart health.
A recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized control trials suggests that intake of n-3 fatty acids reduces overall mortality, mortality due to myocardial infarction and sudden death in patients with CHD The American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines recommend two servings of fatty fish per week for a healthy heart 13 , and the FDA authorized a qualified health claim on dietary supplements linking the consumption of EPA and DHA n-3 fatty acids to a reduction of coronary heart disease risk FDA evaluated the evidence and determined that, although there is scientific evidence supporting the claim, the evidence is not conclusive.
Another class of biologically active animal-derived components that has received increasing attention in recent years is probiotics. It is thought that a wide variety of live microorganisms can contribute to human health, although the evidence is mainly from animal studies. In addition to numerous strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus , other strains of lactobacillus are being incorporated into functional food products now on the market including L.
GG , and L. The review emphasizes that the future success of probiotics will require strong support from medical and nutrition scientists and that studies documenting these effects in humans are limited.
More recently, research efforts have focused on prebiotics, i. Prebiotics include short-chain carbohydrates such as fructooligosaccharides and inulin, which enter the colon and serve as substrates for the endogenous colonic bacteria. Another nonplant ingredient that has been the focus of increased research efforts in recent years is conjugated linoleic acid CLA. This component, which was first identified as a potent antimutagenic agent in fried ground beef by Pariza and co-workers 19 , is a mixture of structurally similar forms of linoleic acid cis -9, trans octadecadienoic acid.
CLA is present in almost all foods, but occurs in particularly large quantities in dairy products and foods derived from ruminant animals For example, uncooked beef contains 2. The inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animals is the most extensively documented physiologic effect of CLA 22 , and there is also emerging evidence that CLA may decrease body fat and increase muscle mass both in rodent models 23 and in humans 24 , although not all human studies have been positive in this regard.
There is also preliminary evidence that CLA may increase bone density in animal models Numerous plant foods or physiologically active ingredients derived from plants have been investigated for their role in disease prevention and health.
However, only a small number of these have had substantive clinical documentation of their health benefits. Some plant-based foods or food constituents currently do not have approved health claims, but have growing clinical research supporting their potential health benefits, and thus would be described as having moderately strong evidence. These include cranberries, garlic, nuts, grapes and chocolate and are discussed briefly below. Cranberries have been recognized since the s for their efficacy in treating urinary tract infections.
A landmark clinical trial 30 confirmed this therapeutic effect in a well-controlled study involving elderly women. More recent research has confirmed that condensed tannins proanthocyanidins in cranberry are the biologically active component and prevent E. New preliminary research suggests that the antiadhesion properties of the cranberry may also provide other health benefits, including in the oral cavity Garlic Allium sativum has been used for thousands of years for a wide variety of medicinal purposes; its effects are likely attributable to the presence of numerous physiologically active organosulfur components e.
Garlic has been shown to have a modest blood pressure—lowering effect in clinical studies 34 , while a growing body of epidemiologic data suggests an inverse relationship between garlic consumption and certain types of cancer 35 , particularly of the stomach The latter may be due in part to garlic's ability to inhibit the activity of Helicobacter pylori the bacterium that causes ulcers.
The best-documented clinical effect of garlic, however, concerns its ability to reduce blood cholesterol. More recently, a Life Sciences Research Office review of six clinical intervention trials with walnuts consistently demonstrated decreases in total and LDL cholesterol that should lower the risk of CHD In the late s researchers noted that residents in certain areas of France, who were avid drinkers of red wine, had less heart disease than other Western populations even though they consumed more fat in their diet.
It must be noted however, that moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage, e. For those wishing to abstain from alcohol, recent clinical trials demonstrate that grape juice may also exert beneficial effects similar to those of red wine because both are rich in phenolic antioxidant compounds.
Consumption of grape juice has been shown to reduce platelet aggregation Another food that is a source of polyphenolics and is just beginning to be investigated for its potential benefits to heart health 46 is chocolate. Chocolate contains flavonoids procyanidins , which may reduce oxidative stress on LDL cholesterol. The effect of green or black tea consumption on cancer risk 48 has been the focus of numerous studies. Studies in animals consistently show that consumption of green tea reduces the risk of various types of cancers.
Only a few studies have thus far assessed the effects of black tea. Green tea is particularly abundant in specific polyphenolic components known as catechins One cup mL of brewed green tea contains up to mg EGCG, the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea. Although epidemiological studies have examined the effect of tea consumption on cancer risk, the data are conflicting A recent study 52 involving 26, residents from three municipalities in northern Japan found no association of green tea consumption with the risk of gastric cancer.
Tomatoes and tomato products are also being investigated for their role in cancer chemoprevention and are unique because they are the most significant dietary source of lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is also a potent antioxidant No study indicated higher risk with increasing tomato consumption or lycopene blood levels.
Cancers of the prostate, lung and stomach showed the strongest inverse associations, whereas data were suggestive for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast and cervix.
More importantly, of the 46 fruits and vegetables evaluated, tomato products were the only foods that were associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The protective effect of tomato products may result from lycopene's ability to selectively accumulate in the prostate gland, perhaps serving an antioxidant function in that organ This hypothesis was strengthened by a recent study that found that men with localized prostate adenocarcinoma had significantly reduced prostate DNA oxidative damage after consumption of tomato-sauce based meals containing 30 mg lycopene for 3 wk Another carotenoid that has received recent attention for its role in disease risk reduction is lutein, the main pigment in the macula of the eye an area of the retina responsible for the sharpest vision.
More specifically, research is focusing on the role of lutein in eye health due to its ability to neutralize free radicals that can damage the eye and by preventing photooxidation. Thus, individuals who have a diet high in lutein may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration AMD 59 , 60 or cataracts 61 , 62 , the two most common causes of vision loss in adults.
Because of the increasing evidence for lutein's role in eye health, supplements that contain this carotenoid are now appearing on the market.
There is some concern, however, that lutein in supplement form may not provide the same benefit as the lutein found naturally in foods The possible benefits of lutein on the eye remain uncertain. Nevertheless, the possibility that lutein may reduce the risk of oxidant-related diseases of the eye clearly warrants further research. Good sources of lutein include green leafy vegetables such as spinach 7.
Although not yet supported by clinical or epidemiologic data, evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies supports the cancer-preventive benefits of flaxseed lignans 65 , citrus fruit limonoids 66 and various cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals, including isothiocyanates and indoles With respect to the latter, broccoli sprouts are currently being marketed both as a dietary supplement, highlighting the potential cancer-preventive action of one purported physiologically active component, sulforaphane, and as a food containing high levels of sulforaphane.
In vitro and in vivo, this component has been shown to be a potent inducer of Phase II detoxifying enzymes in the liver. Such enzymes speed the inactivation of toxic substances and thus accelerate their elimination from the body The marketing of conventional foods as dietary supplements has engendered controversy, however, as will be discussed below.
Although there is evidence that certain functional foods or food ingredients can play a role in disease prevention and health promotion, safety considerations should be paramount. Safety concerns have recently been raised, particularly with regard to the seemingly indiscriminate addition of botanicals to foods. The safety issues related to herbs are complex and the issue of herb-drug interaction has received increasing attention. One example is St John's wort, a popular herb utilized for treating mild depression.
Hypericum extract from St. John's wort significantly increases the metabolic activity of liver cytochrome P
A REVIEW DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND THEIR HEALTH BENEFITS
After completing her Doctoral Studies from School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, she has continued her academic career where she teaches as well as guides graduate, postgraduate and doctorate students in the area of oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy and other development-related heart Diseases. Dr Rani is an academician as well as an accomplished young scientist and has been in research for sixteen years. Her current research focus is to understand the mechanism of action of phytomolecules, and also to develop ideal drug molecule for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. She has been focusing on developing natural therapies and microRNAs based therapeutics to address the most severe disorders that affect the human society such as cardiomyopathy, diabetes and breast cancer. She has been successfully able to communicate her research findings to various International Journals.
Functional foods are foods with health benefits beyond the basic nutritional content. These foods include fruits, vegetables, many parts of plants and processed foods. Frequent consumption of functional foods is proven to improve health and prevent occurrence of diseases. Many scientific studies have shown that these antioxidants are able to scavenge free radicals and diminish oxidative stress, thus reducing the risk of several diseases. Besides fresh produce, many by-products from the food industry are potential functional foods. This book provides more information about these functional foods as well as nutritional components, health benefits and potential applications for our daily living and the scientific community. Add to Wishlist.
Contact your local county Extension office through our County Office List. Print this fact sheet. The concept of food as medicine is not new and has been around for thousands of years. The concept of functional foods was first introduced in Japan in the mids when the Japanese government began funding research programs to study the ability of certain foods to influence physiological functions. However, there is no clear definition for functional foods in the United States. Several prominent organizations have their own definitions Table 1.
Among diseases of concern, cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD) are high on the list. In this respect, phenolics of plant origin, as an.
Functional foods in health and disease
The primary role of diet is to provide sufficient nutrients to meet the nutritional requirements of an individual. There is now increasing scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that some foods and food components have beneficial physiological and psychological effects over and above the provision of the basic nutrients. Today, nutrition science has moved on from the classical concepts of avoiding nutrient deficiencies and basic nutritional adequacy to the concept of "positive" or "optimal" nutrition.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease
New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. Certain members of gut microflora e. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research. Eating habits and trends in food production and consumption have health, environmental and social impacts. Diet has implications on gut health.
Current research on health, nutrition, and preventative care will always be in demand. As the battles against ailments such as diabetes and heart disease continue, medical professionals are seeking to create a healthier society through nutrition and dietary-based tactics. Nutraceutical and Functional Foods in Disease Prevention is a comprehensive publication providing current research on the dynamic fields of pharmaceutical and biomedical science in relation to nutrition. This book examines the interactions and associations between nutritive value and its therapeutic applications in human health. Touching on topics such as the impact of probiotics in human health and disease treatment, recent trends in functional foods for obesity management, and the clinical role of antioxidants in the treatment of diseases, this title proves a valuable resource for academicians, healthcare practitioners, medical researchers, and higher education students preparing for careers as health professionals. Buy Hardcover.
Внизу угрожающе мигала команда: ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ Вглядываясь в пульсирующую надпись, она поняла. Вирус, ключ, кольцо Танкадо, изощренный шантаж… Этот ключ не имеет к алгоритму никакого отношения, это противоядие. Ключ блокирует вирус.
Все. Не упустите. Даже клочка бумаги. - Где теперь это кольцо? - спросил Беккер.
И мы должны его найти. Найти тихо. Если он почует, что мы идем по его следу, все будет кончено. Теперь Сьюзан точно знала, зачем ее вызвал Стратмор.
Энсей Танкадо - единственный исполнитель в этом шоу. Единственный исполнитель. Сьюзан пронзила ужасная мысль.
Верно… - Стратмор задумался. - На какое-то время. - Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит. Но технология не стоит на месте.
Значит, она слышала звук выстрела Хейла, а не коммандера. Как в тумане она приблизилась к бездыханному телу. Очевидно, Хейл сумел высвободиться. Провода от принтера лежали .