File Name: national interest and foreign policy writer.zip
Prior to reformations that swept 16th century Europe, national interest was often understood as secondary to that of religion. To engage in a war, rulers would need to justify the action in such context. The practice is considered to have been employed by France under the direction of its Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu in the Thirty Years' War when it intervened on the Protestant side, despite its own Catholicism , in order to block the increasing power of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor. The notion of the national interest soon came to dominate European politics , which became fiercely competitive over the next centuries. It would become a form of reason "born of the calculation and the ruse of men," recognizing the state as "a knowing machine, a work of reason;" the state ceases to be derived from the divine order and is henceforth subject to its own particular necessities.
National Power is the ability or capability of a nation to secure the goals and objectives of its national interests in relation with other nations. It involves the capacity to use force or threat of use of force or influence over others for securing the goals of national interest. We can understand the meaning of National Power by first analyzing the meaning and nature of power:.
We are encountered with many different explanations in various disciplines. Even within a single social discipline, Power is defined in several different ways. Some social scientists define it as the use of force whereas many others explain it as the capacity to secure the desired goals through the use of force or threat of use of force or even by exercising influence.
On the basis of these definitions we can say that power in the context of human relations is the capacity and ability to secure a desired and intended effect or gain by means of use of force, influence or control. It tells us as to how much powerful or weak a particular nation is in securing its national goals. Unless a nation can do this, she may be large, she may be wealthy, she may even be great but she is not powerful.
In simple words, it can be said that National Power is the ability or capability of a nation to secure the goals and objectives of its national interests in relation with other nations. As such national power means the power of a nation. Political Science defines nation as a group of population bound by a strong sense of nationality based upon common race, religion, motherland, language, history, culture, economic needs etc.
In the context of national powers, the term nation stands for the power of the group of decision makers, statesmen and diplomats who exercises power on behalf of the nation. More specifically, it is the power of the decision-makers who formulate and implement the foreign policy of the nation and thereby attempt to secure national goals. National Power does not mean the power of the entire population of the state. It is only a psychological link that makes the people regard the power of the decision-makers as their own power.
An increase in the power of a nation really means an increase in the power of the decision-makers, statesmen and diplomats of the nation to secure the goals of national interest. Hence, when we speak of national power in international politics, we really refer to the power of decision-makers of a nation in terms of their ability to secure the national interest of their nation. For understanding the nature of power in the context of National Power, let us distinguish between Power and Force, Power and Influence, Force and Influence, and its several other features.
Force means physical force, violence in the form of police action, imprisonment, punishment or war. Power means a psychological relationship of control which is backed by the use of force, or threat of use of force. When physical force, war and other means involving the use of military power or police power is actually used to secure certain objectives, power stands replaced by force.
There exists a subtle difference between Power and Influence. Both are intimately related terms with similar variables and sources, and even in respect of the desired end. Both involve the ability to produce an intended change or effect in the behaviour of others. However, the two are not the same. Power involves a use of force or threat of use of force. Political Power or Legal Power is backed by authority or sovereignty of the state.
Influence involves the attempt to change the behaviour of others through persuasion and not by threats or force. The scope of influence is wider than the scope of power and it is more democratic than power. Nations try to influence other nations but in the ultimate sense the success is determined by the capacity to use force or threat of use of force.
Hence, it is power and not influence which is the real currency of International Politics. Role of influence is subservient to power. Only those nations have influence which are powerful nations. Thus, power is neither force nor influence. But at the time it involves, in one form or the other, both force and influence.
National Power has a non-stable, dynamic character and as such it has to be continuously or at least periodically and regularly evaluated for understanding the role of the nation in international relations. National power is always dynamic. A powerful nation can become less powerful or more powerful in future.
National Power is the means to control the behaviour of other states with a view to accomplish certain ends. It is recognized as the currency with which a nation can secure the desired values—peace, security, progress, development, status, and more power.
Nations use power to secure their interests in international relations. This makes power a means in relations among nations. However, in actual practice power is pursued as an objective or as an end. Nations want power not only for their immediate but also for their future needs. They, therefore, always try to build up a reserve of power and hence pursue power as an end. Thus, power like money is a means but it is mostly pursued as an end.
National Power is the ability or capacity of a nation to influence or change the behaviour of other nations with a view to secure the goals of its national interest.
It is a relationship in which a powerful nation is in a position to achieve its desired goals of national interest in international relations. National Power of a nation is measured in terms of its ability to secure its goals and objectives in international relations. National power is always relative to time and resources. The power of a nation has to be analyzed both through an analysis of the capabilities and ability of the nation as well as by a comparison of its national power with other nations.
Further, National Power is dynamic. It keeps on increasing or decreasing. The debacle that India suffered in the war with China, considerably reduced the national power of India in relations with other nations. But a reasonably good account in war with Pakistan followed by a decisive victory in war gave a big boost to the national power of India.
This depends upon the changes in the power potential of other nations as well as upon the various components of national power. The power of a nation is always relative to the powers of other nations, particularly the power of its adversaries.
In , the collapse of the USSR and decline in the Russian power acted as a source of increase in the US power in international relations.
Further, it must be noted that no two nations have or can have absolutely equal power. There can be only a rough equality between two equally powerful super powers or great powers or major powers. The power of a nation is always more or less than the power of every other nation. National power is often analyzed and evaluated in terms of the capabilities of a nation which are determined on the basis of several factors, like Geography, Population, Industrial Capacity, Diplomacy, Military Preparedness, Quality of Leadership and Government etc..
All these factors have to be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively for evaluating the national power of a nation. Moreover, the attempt to analyze the power of a nation must focus both on the analysis of actual power as well as potential power of a nation.
Actual power is the power which is immediately available, whereas potential power is the power that can be generated in situations of crisis and times of need. It refers to the crisis- management ability as well as the possible availability of power in the years to come. Each nation seeks to use its power for securing its national interests in international relations. It is this feature which makes us regard international relations as a process of struggle for power.
The nature of this struggle for power can be analyzed only through an analysis of the national powers of various nations. The role that a nation is playing or can play in international relations can be judged by evaluating its national power. It is also needed for understanding the national interests of nations. In fact, the greatest of all the national interests of a nation is to maintain and increase its national power.
It is the means for the fulfillment of the needs and aspirations of a nation. As such, it is on the basis of an analysis of national power that we can assess the importance and role of a nation in international politics. National Power is the very basis of the foreign policy of a nation. Only that foreign policy can be effective in securing the goals of national interest which is backed by adequate national power. The ability of the statesmen and diplomats to act and react with others is again determined by the national power of their respective nations.
The three forms of national power are inseparable from each other. Without economic power no nation can develop her military power, and without the latter no nation can play an active role in international relations. Psychological power can be enduringly and really effective only when it is backed by economic and military power. Some of the major dimensions of national power in international politics are as follows: 1. Military Power 2.
Economic Power 3. Psychological Power. Military power is an important form of national power. It is regarded as absolutely essential for achieving the objective of security of the nation.
For every nation, security is the most vital element of its national interest. In fact, it is the primary concern of every nation to work for securing her security. The possibility of violation of security of a nation through war and aggression by other nations is always considered as a distinct possibility and hence every nation gives first priority to her security.
For keeping her security against possible violations, each nation maintains an army. Military power is regarded as the key means for securing the security and territorial integrity of each nation. Military power is as such a vital part of national power. The role and importance of a state in international relations depends upon its military power. No state can get recognition as a super power or big power without becoming a big military power.
The USA is a super power and it is a formidable military power. Japan and Germany are big economic powers but are not recognized as super powers or great powers because they are weak military powers. While evaluating military power of a nation we have to take into account the other two forms Economic Power and Psychological Power of national power, the elements of military power and the military power of other nations.
Russia, the successor state of erstwhile USSR continues to be a nuclear power but it is no longer accepted as a super power because of its economic weakness.
National Power: Meaning, Nature, Dimensions and Methods
National Power is the ability or capability of a nation to secure the goals and objectives of its national interests in relation with other nations. It involves the capacity to use force or threat of use of force or influence over others for securing the goals of national interest. We can understand the meaning of National Power by first analyzing the meaning and nature of power:. We are encountered with many different explanations in various disciplines. Even within a single social discipline, Power is defined in several different ways.
Diplomacy stands accepted as the mainstay and the core process of relations among nations. The process of establishment of relations among nations begins effectively by the establishment of diplomatic relations among nations. A new state becomes a full and active member of the family of nations only after it gets recognition by existing states. The common way in which this recognition is granted is the announcement of the decision to establish diplomatic relations. Thereafter diplomats are exchanged and relations among nations get underway.
Foreign policy of a country is formulated to safeguard and promote its national interests in the conduct of In this sense,Foreign Policy defines the goals of national interest prominent writers on the subject were historians, jurists and.
The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, states also have to interact with non-state actors. The aforementioned interaction is evaluated and monitored in an attempt to maximize benefits of multilateral international cooperation.
International relations scholarship typically treats foreign policy as a taken-for-granted analytical concept. It generally holds that foreign policy differs in essential ways from other kinds of policy, such as carrying with it a special need for secrecy. I argue against this view.
A state 's foreign policy is its objectives and activities in relation to its interactions with other states, whether bilaterally or through multilateral platforms.
The Emergence of Foreign Policy
ГЛАВА 52 Клуб Колдун располагался на окраине города, в конце автобусного маршрута 27. Похожий скорее на крепость, чем на танцевальное заведение, он со всех сторон был окружен высокими оштукатуренными стенами с вделанными в них битыми пивными бутылками - своего рода примитивной системой безопасности, не дающей возможности проникнуть в клуб незаконно, не оставив на стене изрядной части собственного тела. Еще в автобусе Беккер смирился с мыслью, что его миссия провалилась. Пора звонить Стратмору и выкладывать плохую новость: поиски зашли в тупик. Он сделал все, что мог, теперь пора ехать домой. Но сейчас, глядя на толпу завсегдатаев, пытающихся попасть в клуб, Беккер не был уверен, что сможет отказаться от дальнейших поисков. Он смотрел на огромную толпу панков, какую ему еще никогда не доводилось видеть.
- Хватаетесь за соломинку. - Может быть, и нет, - сказала Сьюзан. - Во множестве шифров применяются группы из четырех знаков.
Шекспир, - уточнил Хейл. - Гамлет. - Самообразование за тюремной решеткой. Хейл засмеялся. - Нет, серьезно, Сьюзан, тебе никогда не приходило в голову, что это все-таки возможно и что Танкадо действительно придумал невзламываемый алгоритм.
Я видел его в Интернете. Мои люди несколько дней пытаются его взломать. - Это зашифрованный вирус, болван; ваше счастье, что вам не удалось его вскрыть. - Но… - Сделка отменяется! - крикнул Стратмор. - Я не Северная Дакота.
Джабба покачал головой и бросил взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему была где-то далеко, потом посмотрел в глаза директору.
Наверняка сегодня к ним поступил только один канадец со сломанным запястьем и сотрясением мозга, и его карточку нетрудно будет найти. Беккер понимал, что в больнице не захотят назвать имя и адрес больного незнакомому человеку, но он хорошо подготовился к разговору. В трубке раздались длинные гудки. Беккер решил, что трубку поднимут на пятый гудок, однако ее подняли на девятнадцатый. - Городская больница, - буркнула зачумленная секретарша.
- Быть может, Хейл был прав, говоря, что система резервного питания подает недостаточное количество фреона. - А как же автоматическое отключение. Стратмор задумался. - Должно быть, где-то замыкание. Желтый сигнал тревоги вспыхнул над шифровалкой, и свет, пульсируя, прерывистыми пятнами упал налицо коммандера.
Она бежала короткими испуганными прыжками, волоча по кафельному полу туристскую сумку. Беккер хотел подняться на ноги, но у него не было на это сил.