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- Grounded Theory
- Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory
- Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory
- Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers
Qualitative Marktforschung pp Cite as.
Qualitative analysis is the analysis of qualitative data such as text data from interview transcripts. A creative and investigative mindset is needed for qualitative analysis, based on an ethically enlightened and participant-in-context attitude, and a set of analytic strategies. This chapter provides a brief overview of some of these qualitative analysis strategies.
Jump to navigation. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research approach that attempts to develop theories of understanding based on data from the real world. Unlike some other forms of qualitative inquiry, grounded theory attempts to go beyond rich description which it also strives for to an explanation of the phenomena of interest. The second key word is grounded. For example, if one wished to derive a grounded theory about the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning, one would gather many kinds of data from persons who had grown up amid child abuse, and would build the theory of how it affects adult development on the information obtained from those people.
The primary tools of discovery are interviews and observations. However, grounded theory goes beyond the descriptive and interpretive goals and is aimed at building theories. The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive theories that are grounded in based on reality, that is, grounded in the data collected from people actually involved in the issues under investigation.
A grounded theory is one that is uncovered, developed, and conditionally confirmed through collecting and making sense of data related to the issue at hand. The hope is that such theories will lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon of interest and to ideas of exerting some control over the phenomenon.
The use of literature also differs in the grounded theory approach. There is a recommendation against knowing the literature too well before using this approach because knowing the categories, classifications, and conclusions of previous researchers may constrain your creativity in finding new formulas.
See Grounded Theory Introduction. The dominant methods of data collection in grounded theory research are interviews usually audio-taped , participant and non-participant observations, conversations recorded in dairies, field notes, descriptions of comparative instances, and personal experience.
As mentioned, the participants in a grounded theory study often will be interviewed more than once, and asked to reflect on and refine the preliminary conclusions drawn by the researcher. The methods of doing these forms of data collection do not differ markedly from similar methods across all qualitative approaches.
As mentioned, however, grounded theorists sometimes avoid too much study of the extant literature on their topic before going into the field, in hopes that they will not be biased by previous conjectures and data about the topic.
It is their aim to allow the data to teach them and guide their analysis into a rich explanation. Because grounded theory goes beyond the descriptive and interpretive goals of many other qualitative models and is aimed at building theories, data analysis tends to be more complex and aims to achieve an explanatory power that is not necessary in other approaches.
The heart of the grounded theory approach occurs in its use of coding , its main form of data analysis. There are three different types of coding used in a more-or-less sequential manner this discussion is adapted from Strauss and Corbin, , , Patton, ; and Creswell, ; for dissertations, more detailed discussions in primary sources should be consulted.
The first type of coding is open coding which is much like the description goal of science. Usually open coding is done first. During open coding, the researcher labels and categorizes the phenomena being studied. This involves the process of describing the data through means such as examination, comparison, conceptualization, and categorization.
Labels are created to describe in one or a few words the categories one finds in the data. Examples are collected for all these categories. For example, in a grounded theory study of the effects of child sexual abuse, open coding might discover in the reports of the participants some categories such as these: Feeling powerless, hating myself, hating the abuser, or feeling permanently damaged.
The categories are studied more carefully to identify subcategories, which are called properties and dimensionality in the categories. A link is an axis , hence the term axial. How is axial coding actually done? Axial coding first identifies the central categories about the phenomenon. Next, the researcher explores the data carefully to discover causal conditions , which are categories of conditions influencing the central category or categories.
The researcher continues axial coding by identifying interactions among the categories which are called strategies , although that term might be confusing. Axial coding continues with the identification and exploration of other supporting or weakening conditions which exert lesser influences on the central variables.
These are categories in the data which label the contexts and intervening conditions. Finally, consequences are carefully identified and described. These would include all the outcomes of the presence of the central category in all its interactions strategies with contexts, intervening conditions, properties, dimensions, etc. Consequences describe what happens when the central category is found under specific conditions. See Reflective coding Matrix. Notice that these consequences are NOT presupposed, but are carefully teased out of the real reports and descriptions of their experiences by the many participants in the study.
Preconceptions about the theory must be left at the door. Without using the terminology of phenomenology, the requirement is the same. The third type of coding, selective coding, continues the axial coding activity of relating the subsidiary categories to the central category s.
Selective coding is the process of selecting your main phenomenon core category around which all other phenomena subsidiary categories are grouped, arranging the groupings, studying the results and rearranging where necessary.
From this last type of coding, the grounded theory researcher moves toward developing a model of process and a transactional system, which essentially tells the story of the outcome of the research.
The story line tells the results of the axial coding in a coherent narrative. Many grounded theory researchers do not create a conditional matrix, a diagram or picture of the various categories, interactions, and relationships among the central category s and the subsidiary categories. But the conditional matrix is a very helpful tool in creating the narrative story line which embodies the grounded theory.
The selective coding process typically focuses on two dimensions of the phenomenon: its process and its transactional system. Again, the conditional matrix is quite useful in elucidating these two elements of the theory. Process is the manner in which actions and interactions occur in a sequence or series.
It incorporates the time element. I started to hate myself, though not at first. This in turn alienated most participants from other sources of more benign love, because the victims did not feel worthy of it. The use of the conditional matrix and the process and transactional-system analysis leads finally to the general description of the grounded theory. It might be a brief sentence distilling all the above work, or a more complex statement.
But it will also be accompanied by a set of propositions or hypotheses which explain the phenomenon under study. At this stage, it is usual for grounded theory researchers to return not only to the original data to ensure that the theory fits those data, but may meet with the participants again to compare the theory with their perceptions and to ask them whether the theory fits their experiences. Their responses will be taken as new data to be incorporated into the theory, which is thought to be in a continual adaptation and evolution.
Grounded theory is never complete. Process questions about changing experience over time or its stages and phases e. In grounded theory the researcher may ask understanding questions, trying to elicit the understanding of the participants about their experiences. See Data Saturartion. See Grounded Theory Examples. A number of useful texts discuss methods of Grounded Theory data collection, data analysis, and writing the results. The following list contains excellent general introductions to ethnography, as well as more detailed treatments by practitioners:.
Grounded theory Bibliography. Washington, DC: American. Creswell, J. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morrow and Mary Lee Smith.
Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions, 2 nd edition. Morse, J. Read first for a users guide to qualitative methods. Patton, M. Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3 rd edition. Housand Oaks, CA: Sage. Corbin, J. Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13 , Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory 3 rd ed.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Glaser, B. The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine. Strauss, A. Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques.
Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and theory for developing grounded theory 2 nd ed. By using inductive strategies of analysis, Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to research which seeks to develop theory grounded in the data.
The aim of Grounded Theory Methods is not only to describe well the topic of study but to develop adequate theoretical conceptualizations of findings. In an almost detective-like approach, researchers collect and analyze data, allowing new questions and findings to arise and impact subsequent data collection and analysis. Bryant, A. The Sage Handbook of grounded theory.
London: Sage. The grounded theory method: An explication and interpretation. Emerson Ed. Boston: Little, Brown.
Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory
Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis. While grounded theory is inherently flexible, it is a complex methodology. Thus, novice researchers strive to understand the discourse and the practical application of grounded theory concepts and processes. The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary research framework suitable to inform a grounded theory study. This article provides an overview of grounded theory illustrated through a graphic representation of the processes and methods employed in conducting research using this methodology.
Jump to navigation. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research approach that attempts to develop theories of understanding based on data from the real world. Unlike some other forms of qualitative inquiry, grounded theory attempts to go beyond rich description which it also strives for to an explanation of the phenomena of interest. The second key word is grounded. For example, if one wished to derive a grounded theory about the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning, one would gather many kinds of data from persons who had grown up amid child abuse, and would build the theory of how it affects adult development on the information obtained from those people. The primary tools of discovery are interviews and observations.
PDF | On Jul 1, , Robert W. Service published Book Review: Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques.
Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Corbin, J. Sage, Thousand Oaks. Studies show that a lack of resources and physical activity-unfriendly communities discourage 60 minutes of daily activity, including strengthening exercises, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Grounded theory is a systematic methodology that has been largely, but not exclusively, applied to qualitative research conducted by social scientists. The methodology involves the construction of hypotheses and theories through the collecting and analysis of data. The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model used in traditional scientific research.
Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers
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