Modern Religious And Secular Movements In India Pdf

modern religious and secular movements in india pdf

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Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism , strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism , both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense.

Indian religions

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Indian religions , sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions , are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent ; namely Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism , and Sikhism. Although Indian religions are connected through the history of India , they constitute a wide range of religious communities, and are not confined to the Indian subcontinent. Evidence attesting to prehistoric religion in the Indian subcontinent derives from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings. The documented history of Indian religions begins with the historical Vedic religion , the religious practices of the early Indo-Iranians , which were collected and later redacted into the Vedas. The period of the composition, redaction and commentary of these texts is known as the Vedic period , which lasted from roughly to BCE. In 6th century BCE, the Shramnic movement matured into Jainism [8] and Buddhism [9] and was responsible for the schism of Indian religions into two main philosophical branches of astika, which venerates Veda e.

The Hindu nationalists who later came to populate the Bharatiya Janata Party BJP and its various ideological affiliates have consistently harbored a starkly different view; they envision India as a majoritarian nation-state, not a multicultural one. To understand these dynamics, it is necessary to define basic concepts and review relevant history. This is because political entrepreneurs who promote ethnoreligious identities—especially Hindu nationalist ideologues—have created much confusion around the notion of secularism, claiming that its proponents have endeavored to make the state hostile or indifferent to religion. That was certainly not the intention of the architects of modern India, whose enemy was not religion, but communalism. Nationalist forces aside, all is not well with Indian secularism. In parallel, the judiciary—especially at the lower levels—has adopted a majoritarian undertone on certain controversial cases. At the time, there were two other competing visions for how the state should handle religion, namely Hindu nationalism and Hindu traditionalism.

The Crisis of Secularism in India

Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India , broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities , and the ground-level work being done by non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India. Along with domestic organizations, international human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch publish reports [8] on acts of religious violence in India. From to , an average of people died every year from communal violence, or about 0. Many historians argue that religious violence in independent India is a legacy of the British policy of divide and rule during the colonial era , in which administrators pitted Hindus and Muslims against one another, a tactic that eventually culminated in the partition of India. Ancient text Ashokavadana , a part of the Divyavadana , mention a non-Buddhist in Pundravardhana drew a picture showing the Buddha bowing at the feet of Nirgrantha Jnatiputra identified with Mahavira , 24th tirthankara of Jainism.

Anuradha Dingwaney Needham is Donald R. Longman Professor of English at Oberlin College. Shabnum Tejani, Sign In or Create an Account. Advanced Search.

From their small coastal settlements in southern India, the Portuguese promoted Roman Catholic missionary activity and made converts, most of whom were of low caste; the majority of caste Hindus were unaffected. Small Protestant missions operated from the Danish factories of Tranquebar in Tamil Nadu and Serampore in Bengal, but they were even less influential. The British East India Company , conscious of the disadvantages of unnecessarily antagonizing its Indian subjects, excluded all Christian missionary activity from its territories. Indeed, the company continued the patronage accorded by indigenous rulers to many Hindu temples and forbade its Indian troops to embrace Christianity. Thus, Christian ideas began to spread. The pioneer of reform was Ram Mohun Roy.

Missionaries and the Promotion of Secularism in India

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Надеюсь, не забыл. - Ну и что мне, прожевать все эти цифры. Она поправила прическу. - Ты же всегда стремился к большей ответственности. Вот. Он печально на нее посмотрел. - Мидж… у меня нет никакой жизни.

Это же крайне недальновидно. Ты говоришь, что наше дерьмовое правительство исходит из высших интересов людей. Но что будет, если какое-нибудь будущее правительство станет вести себя. Ведь эта технология - на вечные времена.

Дрожащей рукой она дотянулась до панели и набрала шифр. S…U…Z…A…N И в то же мгновение дверца лифта открылась. ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться.

Стратмор подошел еще ближе. Он хотел прикоснуться к ней, но не посмел.